Skip to main content

Full text of "The potentialities of revegetating and utilizing agronomic species on strip mined areas in Illinois"

See other formats


a I B R.AR.Y 

. ■*■ OF THE 

U N I VERS ITY 

or ILLI NOIS 

\94T/4fc -1952/53 

AGRICULTURL .s 






* 



= 



Inn/hYT Chargin S tl,is "Serial is re- 

sponsible for its return f^ <-u i-t. , 

Theft, mutilation, and underlining of books 

re r s e u.tTd nS f ° r d !'r ,inary ««•" -"- ™-y 
result ,n d.smrssal from the University 




L161 — O-1096 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2011 with funding from 

University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign 



http://wWw.archive.org/details/potentialitiesof4753univ 



I-fcfep 






THE POTENTIALITIES OF REVEGETATING AND UTILIZING 
AGRONOMIC SPECIES ON STRIP MINED AREAS 



UA "V£ PS/ty n P „ 
IN ILLINOIS.. ^turelU™? 



'LiBlARV 



A PROGRESS REPORT 
COVERING THE FIRST, YEAR OF Y.'ORK ON A COOPERATIVE INVESTIGATION 

CONDUCTED BY 
UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS, AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION 

AND 
ILLINOIS COAL STRIPPERS ASSOCIATION. / 



NOTE 

The agreement covering this investigation provides 
that:- "No account of a cooperative research project shall 
be published by the sponsor or by any other agency, except 
upon approval of the division of the University, or head of 
the department in which the work is being done." 

Permission for the reproduction of this report has 
been granted with the understanding that it is to be released 
for the confidential information of members of Illinois Coal 
Strippers Association only, and not to be quoted or released 
for publication. 



THE LIBRARY OF THE 

JUN 1 9 1S51 

HNIVFI^ITY pf ILL1NCW 



«-< Telephone Central 8652 

ILLINOIS COAL STRIPPERS ASSOCIATION 

230 NORTH MICHIGAN AVENUE 
CHICAGO 1, ILLINOIS 

VILLIAM H. COOKE JAMES W. BRISTOW 

PRESIDENT SECRETARY. TREASURER 

CARL T. HAYDEN 
VICE PRESIDENT 

FOREWORD 



o 






To Members of Illinois Coal Strippers Association. 

Gentlemen: 

Successful experiments in converting spoil banks to profitable 
stock range pioneered by Messrs. A. H. Truax and Byron Somers on land 
mined by Truax-Traer Coal Company near Canton, Illinois, have shown 
that -where top soils on spoil banks are adaptable, the establishment of 
stock range is the most economical and most highly productive method of 
returning mined land to productivity. 

In 1945 a number of our companies, encouraged by the success 
of Messrs. Truax and Somers, seeded large areas of their spoil banks 
with grass and legumes. The varying and sometimes discouraging results 
obtained, indicated that the successful development of pastures on the 
widely varying top soils encountered throughout the state, and sometimes 
within the same mining operation, was a problem for scientists in the 
fields of agronomy and animal husbandry. Furthermore, that large savings 
in development costs could be made and better results obtained by oper- 
ators desiring to rehabilitate their stripped holdings in this fashion, 
if the problem were approached on a scientific basis. 

In January, 1947, the President and Secretary of Illinois Coal 
Strippers Association were authorized to enter into an agreement with 
the Agricultural Experiment Station, University of Illinois, covering a 
cooperative research project, estimated to require five years for com- 
pletion, designed to thoroughly explore the subject and to develop the 
highest potential uses of mined land, the types of forage grasses best 
adapted to the soils and conditions encountered, and all other facts es- 
sential to pasture and other forms of use for spoil banks. 

The Central States Forest Experiment Station, U.S. Forest Ser- 
vice, agreed to assist in the project by making available for analysis 
several thousand soil samples collected by its employees engaged in a 
study of forestation possibilities of spoil banks, and is also listed 
as one of the cooperators. 

The agreement with the University of Illinois, executed for a 
one-year period beginning February 1, 1947, and renewable each year at 
the option of Illinois Coal Strippers Association was again renewed for 
a one-year period as of February 1, 1948. The cost of this project will 
average about §5,800 annually. 



- 1 - 



The scope and plan of the project, and the obligations assumed 
by the parte i pants, quoted from the agreement are as follows: 

"ILLINOIS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION 



Agronomy Project No 
Forestry Project No 



. 1003 
. 1001 



NAME: 



OBJECT: 



FUNDS: 



LEADERS: 



COOPERATORSi 



Agronomic Land Use Research on Stripped Coal Lands 
in Illinois. 

The objectives of this project are to investigate 
the potentialities of revegetating and utilizing 
agronomic species on the strip mined areas in 
Illinois. 

Trust and State. 

A. L. Lang, R. F. Fuelleman, J. N. Spaeth, and 

F. C. Francis. 

Advisory Committee: Dean H. P. Rusk, W. L. Burli- 

son, F. C. Bauer, J. C. Hackleman, J. N. Spaeth, 

J. W. Bristow, and Louis S. Weber. 

Agronomist: Alten F. Grandt. 

Illinois Coal Strippers Association. 
U.S. Forest Service. 

University of Illinois, Departments of Agronomy, 
Forestry and Animal Husbandry. 

STATEMENT OF PROBLEM: 

Figures indicate that there are at least 72,100 acres 
of strippable coal lands in Illinois, of which approximately one- 
half have already been mined. The development of strip mined areas 
is first of all a land-use problem including costs and returns af- 
fecting its revegetation. Revegetation is especially desirable be- 
cause strip mining is generally looked upon by the public as seri- 
ously affecting the local economy. Although this is not necessar- 
ily true, the psychological and esthetic implications of large strip 
mined areas in a community make it incumbent on the mining companies 
to provide some means of utilization. 

Owners recognizing their obligation to the public have 
already taken steps to provide means for better use of the mined 
areas. State and federal agencies have cooperated in reforestation, 
wild-life management and recreational projects in some areas; how- 
ever, little work on revegetation with forage species has been at- 
tempted. The mining industry has expressed an interest in research 
of an agronomic nature, involving the establishment of forage species 
on mined areas, and has appropriated the sum of $6,000 for research. 
The following problems will be investigated: 

1. The physical and chemical characteristics of 
the soils in the various mine areas of the state. 



- 2 - 



2. Forage speoies already established by either 
artificial or natural means. 

3« Adaptation of speoies with respect to:- 

a. Soil reaction. 

b. Mineral content of the soil. 

c. Physical structure. 

d . CI imate . 

e. Moisture. 

f . Time and method of seeding. 

4. Adaptation of species as affected by soil 
amendments :- 

a. Correction of soil reaction. 

b. Mineral deficiencies corrected or 

balanced. 

c. Physical structure as changed by 

mining operations. 

d. Moisture and erosion qualities as 

affected by mulching. 

5. Forage yields and quality as determined by:- 

a. Weight of forage. 

b. Chemical composition. 

c. Botanical composition. 

d. Animal gains. 

e. Observations. 

6. Economic interpretations :- 

a. Methods and feasibility of forage species 

establishment. 

b. Costs of establishment. 

c. Accessibility after establishment. 

d. Financial returns. 

e. Evaluation. 

7« Dissemination of information: - 
a. Radio - local. 
b» News items - local. 

c. Circulars. 

d. Scientific publications. 

e. Bulletins. 

PLAN OF PROCEDURE: 

The various departments of the Illinois Agricultural 
Experiment Station will be responsible for those phases of this 
project which come within their spheres of interest. 

A. Since the preliminary reconnaissance will be worked 
out by the U.S. Forest Service, the Department of Forestry of the 
University of Illinois will coordinate the information and data made 
available by the U.S. Forest Service, which has already begun work. 
This includes mapping of stripped lands and preliminary classifi- 
cation on the basis of reaction, chemical composition, physical 



- 3 - 



structure, etc. 



1. The U.S. Forest Service also plans re- 
connaissance on ground cover with respect to for- 
age crops. In so far as possible, the agronomist 
in charge of the detailed work of this project 
will cooperate in that survey. 

B. The Agronomy Department will be responsible for: 

1. Conducting such further surveys as are 
necessary to determine the nature, quantity, and 
quality of forage crops now established. These 
species will be located on appropriate maps, prop- 
erly labeled with respect to the nature of the en- 
vironment. Records of previous seedings and their 
disposition will be recorded. VJhere any records of 
animal production are available notations will be 
made. All records will be kept separately by owner- 
ship, counties, townships, sections and subdivisions 
of sections. 

' 2. Species adaptation studies will be estab- 
lished on spoil banks representative of the various 
soil classifications and climatic ranges. Seedings, 
alone and in mixtures, will be made of all species 
reasonably suited to the area to determine: 

a. The most favorable mixtures and pure seedings 
for rapid growth, survival and longevity. 

b. Specific persistence and aggressiveness. 

c. Tolerance for soil reaction, mineral content 
and texture. 

d. Speed of establishment in relation to physio- 
graphic and ecological factors. 

3. Soil amendments will be used in connection 
with forage adaptation tests and in relation to basic 
information secured for the specific area concerning 
reaction, mineral content, physical structure, moisture 
relationships, and erosion problems. This will require: 

a. Soil testing for acidity and plant nutrient content. 

b. Corrective measures on acid or alkaline areas. 

c. Supplying nutrient deficiencies or balancing super- 
sufficiencies. 

d. Modification of physioal structure by mining oper- 
ations or other artificial means. 

e. Controlling moisture relationships and erosion 
influences by the use of mulching materials. 

4. Determinations of forage species, production 
and quality will bp made by several criteria, including: 

a. Measurements of forage yields in terms of dry matter 
on established plots or fields. Sampling must be 



- 4 - 



adequate for accurate determinations. 

b. Chemical analysis of forage species samples ob- 
tained from various locations and from established 
experimental areas will be made. This will supple- 
ment information made available through the recon- 
naissance survey. 

c. Botanical analysis will be made as a part of the 
yield determinations chiefly as a basis for cata- 
loging sources of contributions of chemical com- 
ponents and also for animal gains. 

5. 'While it is expected that each area owner 
will need to interpret the practical applications of 
this research into his own economy, nevertheless, in- 
formation will be secured on: 

a. Methods of forage species establishment and their 
utility. 

b. Costs involved in such establishment. 

c. Useability or accessibility after establishment. 

6. Results secured by this investigation will be 
made available insofar as their practicability warrants, 
through local radio and news items and by circulars, 
bulletins, and scientific publications. 

C. The Animal Husbandry Department will, after the 
vegetational phases have been developed, be responsible 
for: 

1. Suggesting the type of livestock for pasturing 
experimental areas. 

2. Measurements of animal weights as a method of 
determining forage yields. 

3. Costs and returns attending livestock oper- 
ations • 

D. The Illinois Coal Strippers Association, through 
its membership, will provide equipment, seeds, and such 
manpower on each experimental area sufficient to assist, 
facilitate, and supplement the work of the agronomist. 
The above will be in addition to the budgetary item as 
listed under 'approximate cost.' 

To carry out the details of this project will require 
the efforts of one full-time man well trained in agronomy retained 
by the University. In addition, agronomy staff members responsible 
will need to give considerable time to the project in an advisory 
and direotive capacity. 

Office space, supplies and equipment, as well as labor- 
atory spaoe and equipment, will be supplied by the Agronomy Department. 

Transportation facilities (car) and travel expense will 
be a large item in the conduct of the field work. 



- 5 - 



Assistance in making chemical analyses will be need- 
ed In the form of student or graduate student help." 

A report prepared by the University of Illinois covering accom- 
plishments made on the project during the first year of operation is 
herewith transmitted for information of our member companies. 




Secretary-Treasurer 



Chicago, Illinois 
March 10, 1948. 



- 6 - 



AGRONOMIC LAND USE RESEARCH ON AREAS STRIP MINED 
FOR COAL IN ILLINOIS. 

According to the data published by the Illinois Coal Strippers 1 As- 
sociation 32,056 acres of land were mined by association member mines in Illi- 
nois as of June 1, 1946. An additional 40,034 acres is held by member com- 
panies to be mined, giving a total of 72,090 acres of land. An analysis of 
soil cropping potentials derived from the Soil Survey Division of the Univer- 
sity of Illinois indicates that about 16.8 percent of these holdings is high 
grade farm land; 35.2 percent is of medium grade; and the remaining 48 percent 
consists of forested, rough, or eroded soil not adaptable to general farming 
purposes. There are 31,600,000 acres of land in the State of Illinois now 
used for agricultural and farming or forestry purposes; of which less than 
one-fourth of one percent will be strip mined. 
Location of Present Day Industry in Illinois t 

Strip coal land mined or held for future mining in Illinois is lo- 
cated in twenty-two counties with major operations being carried on in fourteen 
counties. The largest mining areas are located in Perry and Fulton counties, 
in which 5.0 percent and 2.7 percent respectively, of the total county areas 
are mineable by stripping methods. These general areas are shown on Fig. 1 
i/vhich also shows the approximate locations of experimental seeding plots es- 
tablished for study under this project. 
Description of Mined Areas: 

The physical and chemical properties of the spoil material are dom- 
inated by the character of the geologic strata from which the spoil is derived. 
In southern Illinois the amount of loess in the overburden varies from an 
average of approximately 12 feet in St. Clair to less than 3 to 4 feet in Saline 
County. Glacial till or drift lies under the loess and varies in thickness 



- 7 - 



AGRONOMY DEPARTMENT, UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS, URBANA 






«• 



1 ■■ 

2 - 



3 .. T-T(ElkvfcTe)" 



k - 

5 ■ 

6 I 

7 

8 



Sahara 
Delta 






9U L Little Slater 



U.E.-FiderVy 
Pyramid 
Southwestern 
Midwest Sadiap 
Solar 



10 - Morgan 

Hi. U.E.-Buckhart 

12- U.E.-Cuoa 
1;- T-T (Fiatt Nc|.2) 

13- Falrview 
1>- M.E.-Eapatee 

14- Little John 
17- M.E. -Atkinson 
1Q - Morrls-Ho rth^rn 
i§- Northern 

20- ™»*yft IN0 , S 

m to 







3f 



J 



31449— M3 79 

Fig. 1~ Location of Experimental Plots on Strip Mined Coal Lands of Illinois. 

- 8 - 



from 5 feet to 15 feet in some areas. Soft mud shales and rock make up the 
remainder of the strata overlying the coal seam. In areas where the percent- 
age of loess in the spoils is highest, the physical condition of the spoil 
bank material is most friable and from this standpoint the better material on 
which to get grasses and legumes established. There are some areas -where 
pyritic roof shales are present in sufficient quantities to form localized acid 

spots. 

In western Illinois the amount of loess averages 8 to 10 feet in 

thickness throughout the area studied. In a few places carbonates have been 
found at a depth of 6 to 8 feet. The pH of spoil material in this area gener- 
ally tests above pH 7.0. The spoil banks are predominantly friable and hold 
moisture readily. 

In northern Illinois the overburden is composed largely of sands and 
shales. These mud shales often weather into heavy impermeable plastic materials 
which give rise to high runoff and deep gully erosion. Revegetation of such 
areas is generally slow and may require time for weathering to change the ad- 
verse physical conditions to a more favorable state for plant growth. There 
are other areas in this territory, however, where excellent growth of sweet 
clover is flourishing. 
Soil Analysis; 

Table 1 shows the average amounts of soil nutrients, p-H, available 
phosphorus and available potassium, of spoil bank material. Samples were selec- 
ted at random from the experimental plots and tests were made by the soil test- 
ing laboratory at the University of Illinois. The average p-H of the 684 sam- 
ples tested was 6.8, the average available phosphorus content was 122 pounds, 
and the average available potassium was found to be 166 pounds per acre. The 
plots located in southern Illinois are lower, on the average, in plant nutri- 
ents than the overall average, while those in western Illinois are substantially 



- 9 - 



Table 1 


Soil Analysis of Spoi 


1 name 


toa-teni 


IIS. 
















Plot locations 


County 


Samples 


pH* 
Av. 


P* 
Av. 


K* 


Notes 






No. 


Av. 




Southern Illinois: 














Sahara 


Saline 


30 


4.9 


107 


188 


S. S. rock. 


Delta 


Williamson 


28 


7.0 


97 


108 




Truax-Traer, Elkville 


Jackson 


20 


6.3 


58 


155 


Local acid spots. 


United Elec. Fidelity 


Perry 


28 


6.0 


124 


198 


Local acid spots. 


Pyramid 


Perry 


27 


7.4 


B6 


123 


Calc rock. 


Southwestern 


Randolph 


28 


7.3 


85 


137 


Calc rock. 


Midwest Radiant 


St. Clair 


175 


7.1 


116 


131 




Sub-total - 




336 


6.57 


96 


149 




Western Illinois: 














Solar 


Schuyler 


12 


6.8 


171 


224 


High % Loess. 


Little Sister 


Fulton 


12 


7.2 


114 


145 


In western 111. 


Morgan 


Fulton 


10 


7.1 


178 


230 




United Elec, Buckhart 


Fulton 


20 


7.7 


94 


143 




United Elec ., Cuba 


Fulton 


15 


7.6 


140 


143 


. 


Truax-Traer, Fiatt 


Fulton 


50 


7.9 


147 


145 




Fairview 


Fulton 


20 


6.0 


128 


186 




Mid. Elec. Rapatee 


Fulton & Knox 


64 


7.4 


164 


180 




Little John 


Knox 


26 


7.3 


167 


164 




Sub-total - 




229 


7.2 


145 


173 




Northern Illinois: 














Mid. Elec, Atkinson 


Bureau 


20 


7.4 


165 


192 


Shaly material. 


northern Illinois 


Grundy 


49 


6.9 


166 


219 


Shaly material. 


Morris 


Grundy 


28 


3.1 


84 


144 


Highly acid. 


Wilmington 


Will 


22 


7.7 


55 


161 


Compact & plastic. 


Sub-total - 




119 


6.3 


118 


179 


i 


TOTAL - 




684 


6.8 


122 


166 





*pH - 7.0, neutral; P - 92+ lbs/a, high; K - 150-200 lbs/a high. 



- 10 - 



higher. In northern Illinois the spoil bank material is more variable. On 
plots located on property of the Morris Coal and Mining Company the average 
p-H is 3.1, low enough to be toxic to most plants. 

Caution should be used against placing too much emphasis on the aver- 
ages obtained because of the extreme variability of the spoil bank material. 
In small local spots the p-H may be low enough to be toxic to plants, and little 
or no vegetation is found on these localized spots-. In other areas, such as 
sandy spots the available potassium may be less than 40 pounds per acre which 
would result in poor plant growth. However, in general the soil analysis would 
indicate very favorable planting sites for most grasses and legumes. 
Revegetation Project; 

The objectives of this project are to investigate the potentialities 
of revegetating and utilizing agronomic species on the strip mined areas in 
Illinois. Revegetation is especially desirable because strip mining is gener- 
ally looked upon by the public as seriously affecting the local economy. Al- 
though this is not necessarily true, the psychological and aesthetic impli- 
cations of large strip mined areas in a community make it incumbent on the min- 
ing companies to provide some means of utilization. Judging from economio re- 
turns realized by owners who are utilizing spoil banks, these areas may be con- 
sidered an asset to the community rather than a liability. It would appear to 
be a lost resource if they are not utilized to their fullest advantage. 

Funds to begin work on this project were made available to the Uni- 
versity February 1, 1947. Because of the extremely cold, wet spring, much 
difficulty was encountered in trying to make spring seedings. Difficulty in 
locating readily accessible areas on spoil banks for the establishment of ex- 
perimental plots also prevented making extensive spring seedings. Nevertheless, 
a number of experimental plots were established, and a number of spring seed- 
ings were made. 



- 11 - 



The early summer was spent in touring the various mined areas with 
Mr. Louis Weber, Land Use Engineer of the Illinois Coal Strippers* Association, 
who arranged for meetings with company officials on whose properties more ex- 
perimental plots are to be located. Observations were made of species already 
growing on spoil banks and results recorded. Approximately 1,000 plots of 
various sizes were staked out on areas selected for experimental sites. 
Plot Design and Field Methods; 

Experimental plots have been laid out on 21 different locations in 

14 counties to determine the adaptation of legumes and grasses on various types 
of spoil materials over the climatic range of Illinois. Forage species are be- 
ing tested alone and in associations of grasses and legumes in an effort to de- 
termine the most desirable method of obtaining a satisfactory establishment. 

The plot design employed for the non-leveled spoil banks is shown 
in Fig. 2A. This design is similar to that used by Tyner*, et al, in their 
work in West Virginia. The grasses are seeded up and down the slopes to cover 
at least two complete spoil banks wherever possible. The legumes are seeded 
across the grass plots and run approximately parallel to the ridges and valleys. 
The species seeded are randomized in all cases and this plot is duplicated on 
all properties. This type of arrangement makes possible the study of 64 grass- 
legume associations. Where the forage species are seeded alone, the plot is 

15 feet wide and 145.2 feet long, giving a plot size of one-twentieth of an 
acre. 

The fertility study consists of adding nitrogen in various amounts to 
grass plots. This design is shown in Fig. 2A by the grass plot seeded alone 
as exemplified by big bluestem. No fertility treatments are carried out on 
legume plots at this time since the soil tests show adequate plant nutrients 
in most cases with the exception of nitrogen, which inoculated legumes can get 
from the atmosphere. Work of this nature will be investigated further. 



- 12 - 





-I5I- 








—120 


ft. Ions- 












1 

• 
CO 

t-i 
1 








Ali 


alfa 










• 

8 


f-l 


3 

.2 

O 
O 










Ale 


ike CI 


over 








• 


O 
O 
H 












Bii 


dsfoot 


Trefc 


il 




1 






o 




















• 

4» 






















«M 








lad 


ino CI 


over 










• 


















1 






















1 








Mis 


ture 


f 7 Le 


gUBieS 
















Red 


Clove 


r 






• 


• 

CO 

w 

& 

Kb 




























Kox 


can Le 


spedez 


a 














Yel 


low or 


White 














Swe 


et Clo 


ver 











:e 



Valle7 



Valley 



m 
m 


■ 





& 


-p 



M 

* 2 
aj-b 5 


• a 

II 


hard 
rass 


& 


4D 


• 


8 «B 


S 


■p aJ ifi 


M 





CO 


m 


O CO 


*H 


h e c 


Jh « 


K 





s 




- P 


IH 


■<Sh 


O 





£ 







t3 U 



P4 






iH 





Pig. 2-A. — The plot design used in studying specie adaptation, 
alone and in association* 



- 13 - 



The grasses and legumes are seeded by hand with a horn seeder. Fig. 3 
shows the actual seeding operation. The two white string lines show the width 
of the plot and the method of giving plot boundary while the seeding operation 
is being done. It is realized that this method is not 100 percent accurate, but 
it was a practical way of seeding the plot without getting too far off the desig- 
nated area. 

The forage species used on these spoil banks are given in Table 2. 
It is realized that some of the species may not be praotical for the owner to 
use, but in this study an attempt is made to get these species established to 
obtain observations of the comparative aggressiveness and persistence of the 
various species. In some areas obtaining a ground cover of any material is an 
important factor from an aesthetic viewpoint. 

Plots have also been established on leveled areas and on strike-off 
areas. These plots are small, being l/400 and 1/200 acres in size (Fig 2B) . 
A comparison will be made between the two types of plots in regard to oercent 
germination, percent growth of seedling to maturity, ground cover, yields, and 
other factors. These plots are shown in Fig. 4-8. Leveled plots are located 
in southern Illinois on Midwest Radiant Corporation property, in St. Clair 
County; in western Illinois on Midland Electric Coal Corporation, Rapatee Mine, 
in Knox County; and in northern Illinois on Northern Illinois Coal Corporation 
property, in Grundy County. "Strike-off" plots are located on Midwest Radiant 
Corporation property in St. Clair County. It is hoped that strike-off plots 
can also be located and established in western and northern Illinois. 

Plots were also located on drag-line leveled spoils in Saline County 
on Sahara Coal Company property on which second-year sweet clover had been grow- 
ing and had gone to seed. Fourteen grasses have been seeded in duplicate on 
this location. It is thought that the sweet clover has formed enough humus and 
collected nitrogen for the support of these grasses. More plots will be 



- 14 - 



— o~ 



• 
H 
CM 

I 

I 





■a 


73 


1 


* 


■a 

4* 


73 
4» 






4> 


43 


*> 


+> 


q 


q 






q 


q 


q 


q 


© 


© 


CD 




© 


© 


© 


© 


6 


s 


1 




e 


s 


6 


8 


© 


© 


00 




© 


© 


© 


© 


r-» 


•H 


X 




H 


r-i 


cH 


iH 


© 


© 


00 




© 


© 


CD 


© 


CO 


CO 


© 


o 


0) 


CD 


CO 


CO 




*2 - 


•q 


»q ci 


•q q 


-a fl 


T3 q 


5 © 


q c 


q 


© 


2 a> 


q © 


q © 


q © 


d © 


q 


.q 


3 M 


3 w 


q 40 


O W) 


40 





o 














ft 


ft 


ft 




ft ^ 


ft fc 


ft ^ 


ft »H 


u 


u 




$zq 


43 


43 


43 


4> 


+» 


+> 





1 

O 


O «H 
CM q 


§1 


vo q 


<2> <H 

co q 


ih q 


rH q 


s. 



The plot design used on leveled areas and for 
different levels of nitrogen applications on wheat 
and rye, etc. Plots l/400 acre. (Fig. 2-B) 



— -«tw 







Photograph showing seeding operation. The lines 
in center of picture mark boundary of the plot be- 
ing seeded. (Fig. 3) 



- 15 - 



Table 2. 



Common Name 

Kentucky bluegrass 
Canada bluegrass 
Redtop 
Timothy- 
Reeds canary grass 

Orchard grass 
Bromegrass 
Meadow fescue 
Alta fescue 
Chewings fescue 

Creeping fescue 
Ryegrass 
Bermuda grass 
Dallas grass 
Crested wheat grass 

Slender wheat grass 
Western wheat grass 
Blue grama 
Side-oat grama 
Big blue stem 

Little blue stem 
Buffalo grass 
Indian grass 
Tall oat grass 
Canadian wild rye 

Michael's grass 
Rhodes grass 
Switch grass 
Meadow foxtail 
Millets 



Forage Species To Be Seeded. 

Grasses 

Botanical Name 

Poa pratensis 
Poa compressa 
Agrostis alba 
Phlem pratense 
Phragmites communis 

Dactylis glomerata 
Bromus inermis leyss 
Festuca pratensis 
Festuca pratensis var, alta 
Festuca rubra 

Festuca rubra var, creeping 
Lolium perenne 
Cynodon daotylum 
Paspalum notatum 
Agropyron cristatum 

Agropyron tenerium 
Agropyron smithii 
Bouteloua gracilis 
Bouteloua curtipendula 
Andropogon furcatus 

Andropogon scoparius 
Buchlae dactyloides 
Sorghastrum nutans 
Arrhenatherum elatius 
Elymus canadensis 



Chloris gay an a 
Panicum virgatum 
Alcopecuris eliator 
Setaria sp. 



Sudan 
Sweet sudan 

Love grass 

"M !l pasture mix 

Fields pasture mix 



Sorghum halapense 
(Cross) Sorghum halapense 

x S. vulgare 
Eragrostis curvula 



Wheat 

Oats 

Rye 



Calamagrostis epigea 
Triticum aestivum 
Avena sativa 
Seoale cereale 



- 16 - 



Table 2, (cont'd) - Forage Species To Be Seeded 



Common Name 



Legumes 



Botanical Name 



Alfalfa 

Sweet clover - yellow 
Sweet clover - white 
Hubam clover 
Spanish sweet clover 



Medicago sativa 
Melilotus officinalus 
Melilotus alba 
Melilotus annula 
Melilotus suaveolus 



Lespedeza - common 
Lespedeza - Korean 
Lespedeza - Kobe 
Lespedeza - Serioea 
Mammoth clover 



Lespedeza striata 
Lespedeza stipulacea 
Lespedeza striata var. 
Lespedeza sericea 
Trifolium pratense var, 
perenne. 



Alsike clover 
Crimson clover 
Subterranean olover 
Strawberry clover 
Yfhite Dutch olover 



Trifolium hybridum 
Trifolium incarnatum 
Trifolium subterraneum 
Trifolium fragiferum 
Trifolium repens 



Ladino clover 
Hop clover 
Alyoe clover 
Austrian winter pea 
Birdsfoot trefoil 



Trifolium repens var, 
Trifolium procumbens 
Trifolium alyce 
Pisum sativa var. 
Lotus corniculatus 



latum 



Big broadleaf trefoil 

Yellow trefoil 

Kudzu 

Lupines 

Lappacea 



Lotus uliginosus 
Medicago lupulina 
Pueraria chunbergiana 
Lupinus sp. 
Trifolium lappaceaum 



Soybeans 
Red clover 
Sanfoin 
Crown vetch 
Button clover 
Persian clover 



Glycine max. 
Trifolium pratense 
Onobrychis vicioefolia 
Vicia sp. 

Medicago oebicularis 
Trifolium reseysinatum 



- 17 - 



* 











Character of material after leveling, showing plots 
staked out in background. Midland Electric Coal Cor- 
poration Rapatee mine. (Fig. 4) 



- 18 - 







Northern Illinois Coal Corporation. Leveled area - wheat plots 
with various amounts of nitrogen fertilizer added. (Fig. 5) 



- 19 - 







f. # jF 












A spoil ridge after "strike-off" operation has been 
completed. (Fig« 6) 



- 20 - 




fe 






* *V. ft 



»*. 



.- •* 



» ► 



•• * V 



a. **. 



j •< 






* > 

> * • -n .-...• , .■- 












;#tt" 




W • 



Strike-off area seeded to rye and wheat. (Fig. 7) 



- 21 - 



Ilk-, 

jl\y '4t 




Rye and v/heat growing on strike-off ridge. (Fig. 8) 



- 22 - 



established this next summer on spoils on which sweet clover has been growing 
the second year so that this type of association can be studied more thorough- 

iy. 

A mixture of five legumes (alfalfa, yellow sweet clover, alsike, 
mammoth clover, and birdsfoot trefoil) with perennial ryegrass was seeded under 
trees on plots established by the Central States Forest Experiment Station on 
Little John Coal Company and Wilmington Coal Company properties. These plots 
are 300 feet long and 112 feet wide, making approximately 0.8 acres. This area 
covers six ridges or hills, giving a total of 12 slopes with six northerly and 
six southerly exposures. 
Results and Discussions: 

Because of the limited amount of spring seeding accomplished, yield 

data and chemical composition of forage species are very limited at this time. 

1. Grass -Legume Mixture On 
Little John Coal Company, Knox County (Fig. 2C) 

A mixture of 

ryegrass - 5 lbs. mammoth clover - 1^ lbs. 

alfalfa - 2 lbs. alsike clover - 1 lb. 

yellow sweet clover - 2vi lbs. birdsfoot trefoil - 1 lb» 

making a total of 13 pounds seeded April 17, 1947 on two 0.8-acre plots on 
which trees had been planted. The legumes were inooulated, mixed together, 
and seeded with a horn seeder. The ryegrass was spread by hand. On June 9, 
1947 seedling counts were made. A one-foot square was used. Four areas were 
seleoted at random on both plots. On plot 9, 38 percent of the ryegrass seeded 
germinated and grew, and 44 percent of the legumes grew. On plot 10, 56 per- 
cent of the ryegrass and 30 percent of the legumes that were seeded grew. 
Later observations were very striking. The ryegrass grew rapidly and seemed 
to predominate; however, a good stand of legumes was present the entire summer. 
A thicker stand and better ground cover was obtained on north exposure slopes 
than on southerly exposure slopes. It was also noted that the top two or 



- 23 - 



(Jig. 2-C) Plot Design of Tree-Gras 8- Legume Mixture 



112* 



T r 



' I 



I I 



i . 



I i 



I J 



III' 






Valle7 



i 



Ri 




Valley 



17 rove of trees 



\ 



\ 






- 24 - 



three feet of the peaks were not covered. Yield samples taken in August gave 
a yield of 4.34 tons of forage per acre. Not enough yield samples were taken 
to make this an accurate figure » "but it gives an indication of what yields 
may "be expected. The greater percentage of forage was ryegrass. The ryegrass 
had already gone to seed and was beginning to dry when the samples were cut. 

From the above data it will be noted that less than one-half of the 
seed that was seeded germinated and established itself. Because of the slope, 
in all probability much of the seed v>ras washed off the slopes before the seeds 
could germinate and become anchored. Thus it seems evident that a heavier seed- 
ing should be used than that normally recommended in farming practices; also, 
there is probably an ideal time to seed the species to result in a minimum 
washing away of the seed. This factor is important. Alternate freezing and 
thawing will aid in partially burying the seed and thus hold them better so 
probably seeding should be made earlier than these plots v/ere seeded. 

2. Or ass -Legume Mixture on 
Wilmington Coal Mining Company, Will County. 

On the Wilmington Coal Mining Company plots where the same mixture 
was seeded, the results are quite opposite from those obtained on the Little 
John property. Seedling counts made show a variation in the percentage germ- 
ination. Plot 27 showed 90 percent ryegrass and 26 percent of the legumes 
germinated, while on plot 28, 26 percent of the ryegrass and 6 percent of the 
legumes germinated. It was noted, however, that many of the seedling roots were 
exposed. The roots could not penetrate the compact surface material of the 
spoils. Later observations were that the legumes had died out completely, and 
in some of the gullies a few sprigs of ryegrass were struggling for their ex- 
istence, but it had all disappeared on other places. Scattered clumps of 
Russian thistle are growing on these plots. 

The physical condition of the materials exposed by the stripping 



- 25 - 



operation on these plots is very compact and plastic, and -undoubtedly is the 
factor limiting the establishment of a satisfactory stand of forage species. 
The soil tests show sufficient amounts of available phosphorus and potassium 
and a favorable pH for the growth of legumes. Perhaps a period of weathering 
is required to change the physical condition to such extent that grasses or 
legumes can be established. More work is being carried on in these areas to 
further study these problems. 

The extent of gully erosion that occurs on this type of spoil bank is 
shown in Fig. 9. It v.dll be noticed that the slope of the banks is still quite 
steep- 
s' Kudzu Adaptation. 

Kudzu crowns were planted on plots in we stern and southern Illinois. 
Very few crowns lived through the summer. It is believed that the cuttings 
dried out too much in shipping and were not satisfactory stock for planting. 
More crowns will be planted this spring to determine the adaptation of Kudzu 
to the spoil banks. 

4. Fertility Plots (Fig. 2-D) 

Fertility studies with respect to nitrogen were conducted on Midwest 
Radiant Corporation property with four grasses, — orchard grass, meadow fescue, 
sweet sudan, and white wonder millet. Where no nitrogen was added, the grass 
came up in scattered spots but soon died. T/hen 120 pounds of elemental nitro- 
gen or Uramon was applied per acre, scattered spots of thick, dense stands were 
secured. The nitrogen increased the weed growth to such an extent that in some 
places the grass was probably crowded out. It v/as noted that this nitrogen 
treatment increased the size of Cottonwood leaves, in some cases quadrupling 
their size. Fig. 10 shows the effect of the nitrogen on weed growth. 

Samples were collected from these plots and chemical analyses will be 
run. The stand v/as so very spotted that yield data were not taken. The banks 



- 26 - 



^£i 



•* 




Photo showing nature and extent of gully erosion on 
spoil banks of Wilmington Coal & Mining Company. (Fig. 9) 



- 27 - 



Top of Spoil Ridge 



5 






S> 



8 


nitro, 


•H 


o 
3 



o 



o 



© 

O 

u 



o 

4» 



a 

8) 

o 
4» 



o 



o 
u 

4» 



O 



a 


a 


© 


® i 


to 


u ' 


o 


E 


•P 


4* 


«H 


«H 


a 


n 






-19.2- 

38. 



o 



o 




\ 



Fig. 2-D. Plot design of fertility studies with five 

grasses on Midwest Radiant Corporation property. 



- 28 - 




Effect of nitrogen on weed growth on Midwest Radi- 
ant Corporation property. (Fig* 10) 



- 29 - 



in this area were very steep, averaging 56 to 60 percent slope, and gully 

erosion was so severe that seeds were washed away before they could become 

established. 

5. Fall Seedings of Species Alone 
and in Association. 

Fall seedings were made in southern Illinois on the following proper- 
ties: Midwest Radiant Corporation, St. Clair County; Sahara Coal Company, 
Saline County; Southwestern Illinois Coal Corporation, Randolph County; and on 
the Truax-Traer Coal Company, Jackson County. Excellent prospects of the species 
seeded were observed on Southwestern and Midwest Radiant properties, and on the 
northern exposure of the plots on the Truax-Traer Coal company property in 
Jackson County. 

In western Illinois seedings were made on the Little Sister property 
on a heavy growth of weeds. Because of the very heavy growth of weeds, very 
few seedlings of the species seeded could be found this fall. Fall seedings 
were also completed on the Little John Coal Company property. 

In northern Illinois plots were seeded this fall on the Northern Illi- 
nois Coal Corporation and Vfilmington Coal Mining Corporation properties. , In 
checking over the areas seeded, no seedlings were found. The fall was exception- 
ally dry, and perhaps some growth will take place in the spring. Fig. 11 shows 
the nature of spoil bank material in this area on Northern Illinois Coal Corpor- 
ation property. 

Plots were also established on leveled areas and on strike-off areas. 
'.Vheat and rye were seeded and different applications of nitrogen were applied. 
Observations have been recorded and studies will be continued. At this time it 
can be said that the wheat and rye germinated satisfactorily and in most cases 
went into the winter period in good condition. Forage species are also seeded 
on these areas. 






- 30 - 



, 









Nature of spoil bank material on Northern Illinois Coal Corporation 
property. (Fig* 11) 



- 31 - 



Plans for the Coming Yeart 

A field trip is being planned on which farm advisers of counties in 
which strip mining is being carried on, personnel from the various companies 
interested in establishing satisfactory forage pastures, and other interested 
persons will be invited. They will have an opportunity to observe the results 
obtained on the plots established and perhaps observe what private individuals 
have accomplished, and thus get information as to what use the spoil banks can 
be made. 

Plans are being made to measure animal weights as a method of de- 
termining forage yields. Comparisons will also be made of forage quality and 
yields on (1) spoil banks, (2) improved pastures, and (3) average pastures of 
an area. This will be carried on in different climatic ranges, such as Western 
Illinois (Fulton County) and Southern Illinois (Perry County). 

Seedings will be made this winter and spring on the remainder of the 
1,000 odd plots not seeded this fall. Native grasses, as Big Bluestem, Indian 
grass, etc., will be seeded in January and February. The common grasses and 
legumes will be seeded in February, March, and April. 

Samples of forage will be taken to determine the chemical composition 
of the forage species grown. Adequate randomized samples will be collected to 
determine the yields of forage obtained. The relative percentages of various 
grasses, legumes, and foreign material will be estimated. This type of work is 
to be carried on as a follow-up to last year»s seedings and to seedings made in 
the fall and spring of 1947-48. 



♦Tyner, E. H. The reclamation of the strip-mined coal lands of West Virginia 
with forage species. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. Proc. 10:429-436. 1945. 






- 32 - 



, 



1948/49 






THE POTENTIALITIES OF REVEGETATING AND UTILIZING 
AGRONOMIC SPECIES ON STRIP MINED AREAS 



UNIVERSITY OF ILLINO 3 
AGRICULTURE LIBRAR ' 



IN ILLINOIS. 



A PROGRESS REPORT 
COVERING THE SECOND YEAR OF WORK ON A COOPERATIVE INVESTIGATION 

CONDUCTED BY 
UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS, AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION 

AND 
ILLINOIS COAL STRIPPERS ASSOCIATION. 



NOTE . 

The agreement covering this investigation provides 
that:- "No account of a cooperative research project shall be 
published by the sponsor or by any other agency, except upon 
approval of the division of the University, or head of the de- 
partment in which the work is being done." 

Permission for the reproduction of this report has 
been granted with the understanding that it is to be released 
for the confidential information of members of Illinois Coal 
Strippers Association only, and not to be quoted or released 
for publication. 



THE LIBRARY OF THF. 

JUN 1 9 1951 



iiNIVWT/ rt !' UNO'S 



Telephone CEntral 6-3060 



WILLIAM H. COOKE 

PRESIDENT 

CARL T. HAYDEN 

VICE PRESIDENT 



ILLINOIS COAL STRIPPERS ASSOCIATION 

307 NORTH MICHIGAN AVENUE 
CHICAGO 1, ILLINOIS 



JAMES W. BRISTOW 

SECRETARY-TREASURER 



FOREWORD 



To Members of Illinois Coal Strippers Association. 



Gentlemen: 

On February 1, 1°1*7, Illinois Coal Strippers Associ- 
ation entered into an agreement with the Agricultural Experi- 
ment Station, University of Illinois, covering a project of co- 
operative research into the possibilities of revegetating and 
utilizing grasses and legumes on strip mined areas for stock 
range and other purposes. 

This project estimated to require five years of re- 
search in order to arrive at sound conclusions, is now entering 
upon its third year. A progress report covering the first year 
of operation issued on March 19, 19li8 dealt principally with the 
proposed scope and plan of attack on the problem; a survey of 
spoil bank soils found throughout the state, and preliminary re- 
ports on a number of seeding projects. 

The report herewith presented covers the second year 
of operation. It presents further information on spoil bank soil 
materials, and comparisons of such materials with surface soils 
found on adjoining land; the adaptation of various forage species 
to spoil bank soils j the results of preliminary studies of com- 
parative gains made by animals pastured on spoil banks with those 
pastured on undisturbed blue grass and highly improved grass- 
legume pasture. 

In addition to continuing work along the above general 
lines, research in the coming year will be extended to include 
the measurement of yields per acre, chemical analyses and feed 
value of various forage species grown on spoil banks in order 
to determine the carrying capacity of this type of pasture. 



March 15, 1949. 





ecretary-Treasurer 



AGRONOMY PROJECT. 



NUMBER: 1003 - Second Annual Report. 

TITLE: Agronomic Land Use Research on the Mined Areas 

of the Stripped Coal Lands of Illinois. 

OBJECT: The objectives of the project are to investi- 
gate the potentialities of revegetating 
and utilizing agronomic species on the strip- 
mined areas in Illinois. 

LEADERS: A. L. Lang, R. F. Fuelleman, J. N. Spaeth, and 

F. C. Francis. 



Advisory Committee: - 

Dean H. P. Rusk 
W. L. Burlison 
F. C. Bauer 
J. C. Hackleman 
J. N. Spaeth 
James W. Bristow 
Louis S. Weber. 

Agronomist - Alten F. Grandt. 






AGRONOMIC LAND USE RESEARCH 
ON STRIPPED C OA L LANDS IN ILLINOIS. 
By Alten F. Grandt.* 

This is the second annual report of progress made on Agronomy 
Project 1003, a cooperative research project of the University of Illi- 
nois Agricultural Experiment Station and the Illinois Coal Strippers 
Association covering an investigation of the potentialities of revegetat- 
ing and utilizing agronomic species on strip-mined areas in Illinois. 

Some of the material contained in the progress report cover- 
ing the first year of -work will be repeated and in other instances the 
first progress report will he referred to. 

The following problems are being investigated; 

1. The physical and chemical characteristics of the soils 

in the various mine areas of the state. 

2. Forage species already established by either artificial 

or natural means. 

3. Adaptation of forage species alone and in mixtures. 

4. Adaptation of forage species as affected by soil amendments. 

5. Determination of forage yields and quality. 

6. Economics of establishing and utilizing spoil banks for 

pasture. 



Note * — Special Research First Assistant, Soil Experiment Fields and 
Crop Production, Department of Agronomy, University of Illinois 
Agricultural Experiment Station, Urbana. 

The author acknowledges with thanks the assistance, advice, 
and encouragement received from Mr. Louis S. Weber, Land Use 
Engineer, Illinois Coal Strippers Association, in conducting these 
investigations. Without his help some phases of this work could 
not have been accomplished. 



1 - 



SO IL STUDIES ; 

STRATIOGRAPHIC RECORDS; 

One method of determining the land use of spoil banks is to 
study the nature of the overburden above the coal beds. The material 
which overlies the coal and goes to make up the spoil banks is highly 
variable both in thickness and in character. It presents a complex 
of pre-glacial, glacial, and post-glacial material, and no one profile 
may be given as representative of the overburden within a single mine, 
much less throughout the stripping fields of the state. 

Figure 1 illustrates something of the nature and variations 
of the strata commonly present. Table 1 shows the depth and percentage 
of various strata of the overburden. The samples were taken from the 
highwall in the vicinity where the experimental plots are located. 
Where the percentage of the loess is high, as in western Illinois, pas- 
ture establishment is potentially easier than on soils having smaller 
percentages of loess. Where the quantity of rock is excessive a use 
other than pasture should be made of such spoil banks. More preparatory 
work, such as strike-off, can be done more economically on locations 
where the rock is more limited. 

In 14 counties in which studies of spoil banks are carried on 
the topsoil and loess, as tested from highwall samples, had an average 
pH of 6.4; 75 pounds per acre of available phosphorus; and 115 pounds 
per acre available potassium. Loess is a very desirable soil material 
because of its silty texture and in general high fertility level. 

The glacial till is extremely variable. The Illinoian till 
is highly leached in most cases and thus is low in plant nutrients. 
The Wisconsin till is of a younger geologic age and is not highly leached, 
The average pH of the till tested was 7.3 with 77 pounds of available 



- 2 - 



0-18 



5-20' 



3-34' 



0-12 



0-5 




Top soil - variable. 

Loess - depth related to nearness to Mississippi 

and Illinois Rivers. 
CaC03 present at greater depths. 
Sand present in Kankakee River watershed. 



Glacial till - very variable - 
CaCOg present in Wisconsin till, 



Shale - gray to blue - generally hard and 
well-bedded weathers rapidly v,rhen exposed. 
Generally high in phosphorus and potassium. 
pH variable - from 2*5 to 8*5. 



Limestone - characteristic stratum above 
No* 6 coal - variable. 



Slaty shale - very irregular, 



Coal. 



Profile of the overburden showing the horizons commonly present 
in Illinois strip mines. The figures at the left of the diagram repre- 
sents, in feet, the extremes encountered in samples taken* (Fig* 1*) 



- 3 - 



•H 

C 

•H 

C 

0) 



2 
u 

% 

o 

o 

a 
p 
co 

p 

CO 
CO 

o 

•H 

u 

cd 

> 

o 

t 

CO 
O 
U 
CO 
O, 

cd 

,c 
p 
a 
co 
o 

a> 

bfl 
cd 
Sh 
0) 

5 



a> 

rH 
X> 

cd 

E-t 



co 


p 


cd 




p 


c 


P 


O 


cd 


CO 


o 


r— 


rH 


o 


P 


1 


CO 


u 




o 




co 


«H 


1A 


-d 


a, 


o 




s 








J« 


X! 




r-i 


o 


p 


p 


CA 


o 


Pu 


CO 


1 


Pi 


0) 


CO 


-^ 




Q 


rH 


C\J 




P 


cd 






G 


P 






CO 


o 


o 




o 


p 


r-i 


0) 


u 






rH 


CO 


«H 




cd 


a, 


o 




^J 








CO 


si 








p 


p 






a 


CO 


UN 




CD 


CO 






Q 


cm 







cd 


-p CO 




•H 


C P 




>H 


CO o 




CO 


O P 




p 


*n 




CO 


CO <M 




S3 


a, o 




71 






•H 


x: 




O 


p p 




cd 


a CO 




H 


CO CO 




O 


Q <H 




r-i 






p cd 






a p 




rH 


CO o 




•H 


O -p 


n 


O 


fc 


c 


CO 


CO <H 


cd 


CO 


a, o 


(0 


O 




CO 


cd 




(1) 


<H 


£J 


o 


& 


p p 


HH 


Ph CO 




co 


CO CO 



H X! 

cd p P 

P (^ CO 

O CO CO 

E-< T) <W 



p 



o 
o 



o 
o 



C\J 



•LA 



CA 



O 

I 

eg 



en 

UN 



O 

CNJ 
I 

oo 



o 



"LA 



CA 



CO 



vO nO 



CO 



I 

CA 



O 

UN 

I 

UN 



CO 
C 

•H 

H 

cd 
co 



^ 



I 



CM 
CA 



CA 



C 
O 
(0 

o 

cd 



cd 

■s 

CO 



-^p- 



vO <A 
CNJ 



O CVJ CVJ 



CA 



CNJ <A 



"LA 



CNJ 



On CNJ 
t-1 UN 



GO 



CVJ On 
CNJ 



O CA 

CA CNJ 



CNI 



O CA 



O r-i UNCO CO CO 
O O 

cd cd 

u u 

E-t E-t 



On P- CO -3/ rH CNJ 
rH CA CNJ _^_H;\0 

CNJ 
CA 



vO O rH UN O -3/ 

CNJ rH CNJ CNJ (A 

I 

O 

CA 



nO 



CA UN 



NO 
CA 



<A r-i 
UN UN 



CNJ 



CNJ 



CNJ 
CNJ 



-^J 


On O 


UN 


CNJ vO 


HCOOH^JH 


H 


CA 


UN 


vO 


CNJ 


r-i ca 


CNJ 


CNJ UN 


UN CNJ CA CNJ CA CNJ 


CNJ 


CA 


rH 


CA 



On CA 
H 
I 



O On 
rH r-i 



UN CNJ CNJ vO 
H rH H r-i 



O 
rH 



UN 



CO 



J> 



UN r-i 



^O. 



O CNJ 


O CA O r-i UN r— 


O 


P- 


CA 


O 


CA CA 


CA <A CA CNJ CNJ r-i 


CA 




CNJ 


CNJ 



r-UN 



co -3/ 



CA rH 



UN-^T 



t- u 

CO CO 

ex. a, 



x: 

r-i 
O 

a 
cd 



•H 
cd 
rH rH 
O O 



■a 



p p 

CO CO 



O CO CNJ CNJ CNJ On 
rH rH rH rH rH 



CA-^ O t— CO -3 

CA UN -3- UN -Ct UN 

I 

O 

UN 



c c c G c a 

o o o o o o 

p p p p p p 

fc pX^ C^ (JL, i, (JL, 



CA 



UN 



•a 

cd 
co 



p~ 

-3- 



o 

UN 





3 


■& 




X 


CO 


G 


rH 


o 


S3 


p 


rH 


c 


5H 


•H 


i4 


PQ 


O 


^ 





CO 


P 






H 


•H 


c 




rH 


rH 


h 




•H 


CO 


CO 




> 


-d 


p 




J«{ 


•H 


CO 




rH 


(*, T5 


CO 




W 


^~* 'zi 


£ 


cd 


\ ' 


E 


X. 


p 




* CO 


p 


rH 
CO 
Q 


E-t 


13 cw 


3 
o 

CO 



r-i CNJ 












(0 




*"»— *^-*s 






^— y^-s 






•H 




p p 


fi cd 




rH CNJ 




-d 


O 




ScB 




"aTV 




rH 
0) 


•H 




•H -H 


CO CO 




CO CO 




•H 


rH 




-o -o 


P ,c^- 




p p 


5 


ch 


rH 




cd cd 


to ^ -P 




cd cd 


«H 


rH 


c 


on « 


•rt O +2 




a, a, 


o 


CO 




O 


t i 

p p 


co 3 cd 

oq -h 


§ 


cd cd 


►^ 


xi 

CO 


E 


§ 


(0 CO 


CO fc 


•H 




CO 




CO 


a 


CO CO 


rH -v-^ 


> 


• • 


rH 


• 


£ 


•H 


fe £ 


P w 


U 


w w 


P 


w 


t 


E 


T* TJ 


P Eh 


•H 




P 




fH 


•H «H 


•H ♦ 1 


cd 


• • 


•H 


• 


O 


•H 


S3 a 


^ ^> E-t 


ClH 


a a 


^ 


a 


a 


1* 



phosphorus, and 112 pounds of available potassium per acre. 

The shales in the overburden were found to be high in avail- 
able phosphorus and potassium with an average of 148 and 212 pounds per 
acre respectively. In many instances, the amounts of each element 
available was greater than could be tested by the photometer. The pH 
of shales is generally very high. The average was found to be 7.1, 
with some layers as high as 8.5. However, in some instances the pH was 
as low as 3.5. A more thorough study of the shales will be made. 

Another source of data concerning the nature of the overburden 
would be the use of drill records. From such records predictions could 
be made of the physical nature of the spoil bank material and an indi- 
cation of potential land use. For example, where the percentage of 
dense clay and soft mud shales is high the spoil banks upon weathering 
will be very impermeable and subject to severe gully erosion. Such a 
condition is prevalent in the northern Illinois area. Restricted infil- 
tration and shallow rooting indicate that drouth is a serious factor in 
establishing vegetation on this type of material. Soil moisture determ- 
inations of the surfaoe material give further proof to this point. 

The source of sulphur from which the toxic "acid spots" form 
is not yet definitely known. By studying the stratiographic column, it 
is hoped that more information on this problem can be obtained. Iron 
pyrites and marcasite found in the roof coals and black shales is the 
source of some, but certainly not all, of the sulphur. Croxton (1) 
points to the shales as a possible source of the acid. This appears evi- 
dent in that some layers samples in the highwall study revealed pH as 
low as 3.5. Figure 2 shows acid spots on the spoil banks around which 
no vegetation will grow. The dark appearing spots are high acidic. 

Weathering and subsequent leaching will reduce the total sulphur 






- 5 - 




Acid spots on spoil banks in Saline County. The dark appearing spots 
are highly acidic. It has been estimated that less than five percent 
(5.0%) of all land strip-mined in the state, as of 1946*, is affected 
by this toxic acid condition. (Fig* 2) 



Central States Forestry Experiment Station - 1946 



- 6 - 



content of these acid spots. At present it is not known how long a per- 
iod of time will be required to reduce the sulphur content to the point 
where normal vegetative growth occurs. 

SOIL TYPES BEING STRIPPED: 

The type name, number and description, and the productive rat- 
ing of some of the soils being stripped by each mine for the county are 
listed in Appendix A. The area stripped was checked, by section, against 
the recorded soil types published by the Illinois Soil Survey. Where 
soil reports are available the percent of each type being stripped can 
be determined. 

Appendix B lists the average yield per acre of various crops 
under different systems of management on some of the soil -types being 
stripped. These yields should be correlated with the productive ratings 
given for the soil types to determine the true agricultural value of the 
soil type. 

In connection with the yield data Appendix C gives the acre 
values of crops and indexes for 1944-1947, on soil types listed, as de- 
termined from soil experiment field data. This information is listed so 
as to give a better understanding of the nature of the soil material be- 
fore and after the stripping operation, and the readers attention is 
specifically called to the data contained in these appendixes. 

SOIL ANALYSIS OF SPOIL BANK MATERIAL; 

Table 2 shows the average amounts of soil nutrients, (pH avail- 
able phosphorus and available potassium), found in spoil bank material. 
Samples were selected at random from the experimental plots and tests 
were made by the soil testing laboratory at the University of Illinois. 
The averages include samples collected in 1947 and 1948. Only minor 

shifts in the averages resulted, so they would seem to be reliably 

i 



- 7 - 



Table 2. SOIL ANALYSIS OF SPOIL BANK MATERIAL. 























Acidity 


Phos- 


Potas- 








No. of 


p-E* 


phorus 


sium 




Plot Locations. 


County. 


Samples. 


Average . 


lbs.* 

Average. 


lbs.* 

Average. 


Note. 


Southern Illinois 














Sahara 


Saline 


54 


4.5 


90 


169 


Shale ■+■ 
S. S. Rock. 


Delta 


■Williamson 


52 


6.2 


86 


110 




T-T, Elkville 


Jackson 


20 


6.3 


58 


155 


Local acid 


(Truax-Traer) 












spots. 


N.E. Fidelity 


Perry 


60 


6.7 


145 


204 


Local acid 
spots. 


Pyramid 


Perry 


44 


7.1 


91 


154 




Southwestern 


Randolph 


34 


7.3 


82 


138 


Calc. rock. 


Midwest Radiant 


St. Clair 


175 


7.1 


116 


131 




Sub -total - 




438 


6.6 


105 


147 




Western Illinois 














Solar 


Schuyler 


12 


6.8 


171 


224 


High percent 


Little Sister 


Fulton 


28 


7.7 


157 


179 


Loess in 


Morgan 


Fulton 


10 


7.1 


178 


230 


W. Illinois. 


U.E. ,Buckheart 


Fulton 


36 


7.7 


101 


134 




U.E., Cuba 


Fulton 


32 


7.5 


123 


144 




T.T., Fiatt 


Fulton 


78 


7.8 


146 


148 




Fairview 


Fulton 


44 


6.5 


133 


167 




M.E. Rapatee 


Fulton-Knox 


81 


7.5 


148 


177 




Little John 


Knox 


67 


6.8 


166 


194 




Sub-total - 




388 


7.3 


140 


169 




Northern Illinois 















M.E. Atkinson Bureau 
Northern Illinois Grundy 
Morris Grundy 

Wilmington Will 

Northern Illinois Kankakee 



Sub-total - 



Total and averages - 



84 


7.4 


157 


264 


Shaly material. 


67 


6.7 


139 


198 


Shaly material. 


28 


3.1 


84 


144 


Highly acid. 


22 


7.7 


55 


161 


Compact and 
plastic. 


40 


7.6 


110 


184 


Compact and 
plastic. 


241 


6.8 
6.9 


127 


209 




1 067 


122.7 


169.2 





*p-H - 7.0 neutral; P - 92 lb/A, high; K150 - 200 lb/A high. 



- 8 - 



representative. A total number of 1067 samples was tested. The average 
pH was 6.90; the average available phosphorus content was 122.7 pounds 
per acre; and the average available potassium was 169.2 pounds per acre. 
These amounts of nutrients are adequate for good forage production. 

The plots located in southern Illinois contain smaller quanti- 
ties of plant nutrients than the overall state average, while those in 
western Illinois are substantially higher. In northern Illinois the 
tests show the spoil bank material to be more variable. In the sandy 
areas both the available phosphorus, and potassium content are low. In 
other areas a toxic acid condition exists. These facts emphasize the 
variability of spoil bank material and suggest that each location be 
studied individually when planning land use. A systematic sampling tech- 
nique and the thorough testing of spoil bank soils for acidity, phosphor- 
us, and potassium are the first steps in the detailed planning for the 
best use to be made of the land. 

ANALYSIS OF SOILS TESTED BY COUNT Y SOIL TESTIN G LABORATORIES: 

A study was made of soil tests from farms in the counties where 
strip mining is being carried on. These data were obtained from the 
county soil testing laboratories. Detailed summaries of the various tests 
are listed in Appendix C. Table 3 shows a comparison of soil tests on 
spoil bank soils and soils of farm land. The farm land averages were 
computed and are not amenable to direct comparisons. 

The acidity tests of spoil bank materials were determined by a 
Beckman pH machine which measures the hydrogen ion concentration or pH 
of the soil. The acidity tests of the county were made by the Comber 
test method which enables one to determine the amounts of limestone (in 
tons) required to neutralize the soil acidity. The correlation between 

the Comber test and the pH readings is as follows: 

l 



- 9 - 



Comber tes 
tons limes 
required. 


;ts 
;tone 


Range in pH 
for Comber test 
readings. 


Average pH 
reading used for 
computed averages. 


0-1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 




7.0-6.11 
6.1-5.81 
5.8-5.31 
5.3-4.71 
4.7-4.21 
4.2 


6.5 
6.0 
5.5 
5.0 
4.5 



The computed averages found in Table 3 were obtained by multiply- 
ing the number of samples requiring a definite amount of limestone and 
using the average pH listed for each limestone requirement as the multi- 
plicand. The products were totaled and divided by the total number of 
samples to obtain the computed pH averages. 

The phosphorus tests made by the county were determined by the 
improved phosphate soil test developed at the University of Illinois. 
This gives a blue color, the intensity of which varies with the relative 
amount of phosphorus available. The phosphorus tests of spoil bank 
materials were made by the photometer method for determining available 
phosphorus in soils; the available phosphorus content is recorded in 
pounds per acre. The correlation between the visual color test and the 
photometer test is as follows: 



Improved phosphate 
test, color in- 
tensity. 



Photometer 

reading 

pounds per acre. 



Average reading used 
in pounds per acre 
for computed averages 



Low 
Slight 
Medium 
High 



20-32 
33-53 
54-75 
76-92 



26 
43 
65 

84 



The spoil bank tests were determined by the photometer method, 
which measures up to 200 pounds per acre of available phosphorus, and 
the farm samples were run by the color method, which measures a maximum 
of 92 pounds per acre of available phosphorus. The spoil bank readings 



- 10 - 



TABLE 3. COMPARISON OF THE AVERAGES OF SPOIL BANK AND FARM 









LAND 


SOILS. 








County 


Acidity average p-H 




Pho s pho ru s 


Potas 


sium 




Spoil banks. 


Farmland* 


Spo 


il banks. 


Farmland* 


Spoil banks 


. Farmland* 


Bureau 


7.4 


5.80 




87.3 


40.7 


264.0 


215.6* 


Fulton 


7.1 


6.01 




84.5 


46.7 


161.7 


205 


Grundy 


5.7 


6.14- 




71.0 


51.7 


182.0 


208 


Jackson 


6.3 


5.79 




53.0 


41.0 


155 


180 


Kankakee 


7.6 


. • • • 




79.4 


.... 


184 


176.8 


Knox 


6.8 


5.88 




88.7 


36.1 


194 


204.9* 


Perry 


7.1 


6.00 




79.4 


35.1 


173.3 


158 


Randolph 


7.3 


6.21 




68.0 


39.1 


138 


157.7 


Saline 


4.5 


5.79- 




73.8 


37.7 


169 


180.1* 


Schuyler 


6.8 


5.85 




88.0 


33.4 


224 


155.9* 


St. Clair 


7.1 


6.04 




64.0 


39.7 


131 


166 


Vermilion 


• • . 


5.70 




• • • • 


56.1 


• a . . 


206* 


Will 


7.7 


5.47 




51.8 


49.4 


161 


225.7* 


Williamson 


6.2 


6.10 




61.0 


37.4 


110 


193.4 



Farm land soils (tested by the County Soil Testing Laboratories.) 



* Computed averages 
See Appendix D. 



- 11 - 



were reduced to a level with the farm samples "by taking 92 pounds per 
acre as a maximum reading. Thus the samples are more nearly comparable 
than if averages of two different methods of testing were compared. The 
computed averages were figured in the same manner as the computed pH 
averages* 

The potassium tests of both farm land and spoil bank material 
were made by the photometer method for the determination of available 
potassium in soils. Some of the averages from farm land tests are arith- 
metical averages and thus are directly comparable with the spoil bank 
tests. Where arithmetical averages were not available computed averages 
were again determined. 

In some cases the number of samples tested for potassium was 
small and the averages obtained in such counties are not too reliable, 
because they represent such a small percentage of the county area and 
undoubtedly include the better farms and the more progressive farmers who 
practice soil treatment. The averages shown are probably higher than a 
more representative county average would be. 

In all cases the spoil bank soil material tests were higher in 
available phosphorus than the county farm land averages. In 11 of 13 
counties listed the pH of spoil bank soil material was higher than the 
average pH of county farm lands. The available potassium content of spoil 
bank soil materials is generally lower than adjacent farm land. One of 
the reasons for this is that much of the potassium of spoil bank soils 
is present in an unavailable form. Vegetative growth and weathering will 
tend to change some of the unavailable potassium to a more available form. 

Illinois is one of the few states where soil testing of farm 
lands is an accepted and widespread practice. These tests were made by 
the state and county soil testing laboratories. The above comparisons 



- 12 - 



were made possible from the records made available by these laboratories. 

TEMPERATURE AND MOISTURE RELA TI ONSHIPS OF SPOIL BAM SOIL S; 

The temperature and moisture of spoil bank soils were measured 
during July and August on various slope exposures and under varying 
amounts of vegetative cover. The temperatures on slopes having south 
or west exposures were higher than on slopes having north or east expos- 
ures. On bare slopes the temperature at the two-inch level on south or 
west slope exposures averaged about 10 to 12 degrees Fahrenheit higher 
than on north or east slope exposures. A maximum range in temperature 
of 44 degrees during a 24-hour period was recorded on a south slope ex- 
posure at the two-inch depth level. At the six-inch level the temper- 
ature fluctuates less during a 24-hour period than at depths closer to 
the surface. 

No excessively high temperatures were noted during the time 
these recordings were made. The highest spoil bank soil temperature re- 
corded was 105 degrees on a tight, plastic glacial till and shale mater- 
ial in Will county. 

Green vegetation generally tends to equalize soil temperatures. 
It was found that the soil temperatures were 7 to 10 degrees lower under 
alfalfa cover than on bare slopes in periods of rising temperatures. 
Figure 3 shows vegetative growth on north and south slope exposures. 
Vegetation is always better on north and east exposures. 
EXPERIMENT AL PLOTS. 

GENERAL DESCRIPTION: 

Experimental plots have been laid out at 40 different locations 
on 22 mine properties in 14 counties. These were established for the pur- 
pose of investigating the potentialities of revegetating and utilizing 

agronomic species of the spoil banks in Illinois. Figure 4 shows the 

i 



- 13 - 








• - * 1 



i 



I ■ 

/. * i i 



I -I. 



v ■«■ 






^ V 



- 









. . 






Showing vegetative growth on north and south slope exposures. The 
darker appearing portion to the upper right of the photograph is a 
sod cover on a north slope. August, 1947. (Fig. 3) 



- 14 - 



AGRONOMY DEPARTMENT, UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS, URBANA 



*>• 



Coal Companies- 



1-Sahara 

2-Delta 

3-T-T (Elkville) 

4-U.E. (Fidelity) 

5-Pyramid 

6-Southwestern 

7-Midv/est Radiant 

8-Solar 

9-Little Sister 
10-Morgan 
11-U.E.Buckheart 
12-U.E. Cuba 
13-T-T.(Fiatt #2) 
14-Fairview 
15-M.E.(Rapatee) 
IS-Little John 
17-M.E. (Sheffield) 
18-Morr is -Northern 
19-Northern 
20-Wi lmington 
21 -North em 
22-Ayrshire 





3f 



tr 



31449— MS 79 



Location of Experimental Plots on Strip-Mined Coal Lands of Illinois. 

(Fig. 4) 



- 15 - 



location of the plots over the state. The numbers listed beside the 

company name are used to designate the location of the experiment. 

The nature of the experiments being studied is indicated by letters as 

the following: 

A. Species adaptation alone and in association of newly 
mined spoils. 

E. Species seeded on older banks covered with sweet clover 
residue, weed residue, pastures, etc. 

C. Fertility treatments. 

D. Establishment of a mixture of several species. 

E. Forage species seeded on "strike-off" banks. 

F. Forage species seed on leveled banks. 

G. Rate and time of seeding. 
H. Use of mulching materials. 

LOCATION ON MINE PROPERTIES : 

A more detailed location of the experimental plots and the 
total number of plots to date is listed in Table 4. In locating the 
plots an attempt was made to test the spoils of all member companies of 
the Illinois Coal Strippers Association and to test different textural 
soil materials making up the spoil banks throughout the state; also to 
test spoils formed by different stripping operations and left in vari- 
ous ways. 

PLOT DESIGNS AND FIELD METHODS : 

The plot design used in Experiments A and G to study species 
adaptation alone and in association on undisturbed spoil banks is shown 
in Figure 5-A. In the eight-by eight association plots the grasses are 
seeded up and down the slopes to cover two complete spoil banks wherever 
possible. The measurements of the plots are 145.2 feet long by 15 feet 






- 16 - 



TABLE 4. DETAILED LOCATION OF PLOTS. 























Experiment 


















No. 


Classifi- 




Sec- 


Town- 








Location 


of 


ation. 


County. 


tion. 


ship. 


Range. 


Company. 


in section. 


Plots. 


1 - A-f-B 


Saline 


27 


9 


S 


5 


E 


Sahara 


m of nw 


64 


1 - C 


Saline 




9 


S 


5 


E 


Sahara 




26 


2 - A + B 


Williamson 


22 


9 


S 


4 


E 


Delta 


NE of SW 


68 


3 - A 


Jackson 


7 


8 


s 


1 


W 


T-T, Elkville 


NW of SE 


40 


4 - A 


Perry 


15 






2 


W 


U.E. Fidelity 


SW| 


54 


4 - C 


Perry 












U.E. Fidelity 




26 


5 - A 


Perry 


35 


5 


s 


3 W 


Pyramid 


swj 


54 


5 - D 


Perry 












Pyramid 




12 


6 - A 


Randolph 


2 


6 


s 


5 1 


Southwestern 


NW of SE 


56 


6 - B 


Randolph 


11 


6 


s 


5 


W 


Southwestern 




32 


7 - A 


St. Clair 


35 


1 


N 


9 


W 


Midwest Radiant 


NVV of NE 


10 


7 - C 


St. Clair 


2 


1 


S 


9 


W 


Midwest Radiant 


NW of NE 


10 


7 - A-E+F 


St. Clair 


2 


1 


S 


9 


W 


Midwest Radiant 


NIT of NE 


389 


8 - D 


Schuyler 


19 










Solar 




23 


9 - B 


Fulton 




6 


N 






Morgan 




20 


10 - A 


Fulton 


29 


6 


N 


4 


E 


Little Sister 




16 


10 - B 


Fulton 












Little Sister 




24 


11 - A 


Fulton 


35 


6 


N 


5 


E 


Buckheart 


NE of NW 


40 


11 - C 


Fulton 












Buckheart 




26 


12 - A 


Fulton 


14 


6 


N 


3 


E 


Cuba 


NEi 
SEI- 


30 


13 - A 


Fulton 


2 


6 


N 


3 


E 


T-T,Fiatt No. 2 


78 


13 - D + G 


Fulton 


3 










T-T,Fiatt No. 2 




64 


14 - D + G 


Fulton 


3 










Fairview 




52 


14 - E 


Fulton 












Fairview 




12 


15 -A+B 


Fulton 


4 










Rapatee 


NE of NE 


60 + 


15 - C 


Knox 












Rapatee 




26 


15 - F 


Knox 


28 


9 


N 


3 


E 


Rapatee 


NE of NE 


113 


16 - A 


Knox 


25 


12 


N 


3 


E 


Little John 


SW 


16 


17 - A-i-D 


Bureau 


22 


16 


N 


6 


E 


M.E.Atkinson Sheffield Mine 


71 + 


18 - A 


Grundy 












Morris 




56 


19 - F 


Grundy 


34 


34 




7 


E 


Northern Illinois 


m of sw 


1 


19 - A 


Grundy 


21 


33 


N 


8 


E 


Northern Illinois 


NW of SW 


56 


19 - B 


Grundy 


17 


33 


N 


8 


E 


Northern Illinois 


nbJ 


13 


19 - C 


Grundy 














T 


26 


20 - A 


van ' 


28 


32 


N 


9 


E 


Wilmington 


SWi 


24 


21 - A+D 


Kankakee 


8 


39 


N 


9 


E 


Northern Illinois 


SW of NE 


20 


21 - A-D 


Kankakee 


7 


31 


N 


9 


E 


Northern Illinois 


SW of SW 


20 


22 - A-D 


Vermilion 
















None 



Total Number of Plots - 



1,728 



- 17 - 



15 



i 
oc 

I 



1 

i 

o 



N 



$■ 



Alfalfa 



Als 



ike Clover 



Birdsfoot 



Ladino CI 



Yell 
Swee 



TrefoLl 



Dver 



Mixture of 7 Legumes 



Red Clove 



Korean Le 



.ow or 
it CI 



s-pedeza 



cv 



tfhitel 

er 
L 



o 



Oir-t 



<a- 



(0 

CD 
E 



CD 







C4 



O 

o 



o 

CD 

O 

I 



CO 

0) 

cc 
to 

03 



tidge 



Valley 



Lidge 



Valley 



ticige 

















Cj CO 














> 




q co 














O 




o u 


CO 












-cf 




M 


CO 




CO 




& 




«J 

CD 




Sh CD 

o 2 


cd 




DB 




a) 




2 




(-1 


cl 


CO 
CO 


CO 

u 




c3 CO 


£ 

♦» 


In 




£PQ 


•d 


ti 

^ 


CD 


ft 
o 


CO 


O 


o 

CO 


§ 9 


s 


ttf 


e 


♦a 


Tj fc 


o 


cd 


(L 


*> -H 


,c 


CD 


o 


T3 


a) ci> 


6 


+3 


PH 


G -d 


o 


£ 


pq 


$ 

rt 


£ 


•H 


5! 




CD 


u 

o 



The nlot design used in studying snecie adaptation, alone and 
in association. (Fig. 5-A) 



- 18 - 



wide, mating l/20 acre in size. The legumes are seeded across the grass 
plots and run approximately parallel to the ridges and valleys. These 
plots are 18.2 feet wide by 120 feet long, making 1/20 acre plots. The 
species seeded are randomized and the plots are duplicated in all cases. 
This type of arrangement makes possible the study of 64 grass-legumes 
associations. All the species used are also seeded alone up and down 
the slope in l/20 acre plots. Some of the grass plots were treated 
with various amounts of nitrogen fertilizer as shown in the grass plot 
of the design. The size of the treated plot is 5 feet wide by 21.5 feet 
long, making about 1/400 acre in size. Since the legumes were inocul- 
ated when they were seeded they were not treated with a nitrogen fertil- 
izer* 

The plot design used in Experiment C is shown in Figure 5-B. 
The fertilizer applications are applied up and down the slopes at the 
rate of 750 pounds of 8-8-8 mixed fertilizer and 100 pounds of trace min- 
erals per acre as shown. The size of the plots are 130 feet long by 30 
feet wide, making .09 acre. The 750 pounds of 8-8-8 mixed fertilizer 
means that 60 pounds of elemental nitrogen, 60 pounds of phosphoric acid 

(^2^5) » an< * 60 pounds of potash (K2O) are applied per acre. Straight 
materials were used and mixed in the proper amounts. 7/hen ammonium 
nitrate was used, 16.6 pounds of a 32.5 percent material was applied. 
In some cases ammonium sulfate was used and 27 pounds of a 20-percent 
material was applied. Twelve pounds of a 45-percent phosphate was used 
per plot to supply the phosphorus. Nine pounds of a 60-percent potash 
were required per plot to supply the necessary amounts. In all cases 
where trace minerals were used nine pounds of "Agro-Min" was applied per 
plot. This material, made by the Agricultural Minerals Company, Montgom- 
ery, Alabama, contains "zinc, copper, manganese, boron, iron, calcium, 



- 19 - 



-30'- 



i 
o 

i 






■ — 


, — . 










*5 










_ _5_ _ __ 
11 

JL 

9 

_ k 

. 13 

J 

2, 














— _ 








_ — 


— 



















_ _ — 


— — — 


— — — 




. — — 




— — _ 




C. 


3. 




G. 


A __ _ 

_8_ 

_10 , 

P. 1? 




H. 


D. 


A. 


E. 








-?' 


40'- 









o 



*e 


rtilizer Ap] 


>licat 


ion 


Fo 


rage Species Seeded 


Pounds 


Rate 




?50 lbs. /A 








per 


per 
















plot 


acre 


A 


8-8-8 








1. 


Kentucky bluegrass 


1.1 


15 


B 


8-8-8 


plus 


trace 


elements 


?. 


Brome 


1.1 


15 


C 


8-0-0 


■olus 


trace 


elements 


3. 


Red ton 


1.0 


14 


D 


8-0-0 








4. 


Timothy 


0.85 


1? 


E 


8-8-0 








5. 


Orchard Grass 


1.1 


15 


F 


8-0-8 








6. 


Alta Fescue 


1.1 


15 


G 


0-8-8 








?. 


Ryegrass 


1.1 


15 


H 


0-0-0 








8. 

9. 
10. 
11. 
1?. 
13. 


Sweet Clover 

Alfalfa 

Red Clover 

Lad i no 

Lest)edeza 

Birdsfoot Trefoil 


1.1 
1.1 

0.85 
0.33 
l.k 

0.^5 


15 

15 

1? 
5.0 
?0 
6.0 



The Tolot design used for the fertility treatment experiment. (Fig. 5-3) 



- 20 - 



sodium, iodine, cobalt, magnesium, and ten other minor mineral elements." 
(Quoted from label on bags of Agro-Min.) 

V/hen limestone was needed it was supplied at the rate of 5 tons 
per acre in the form of hydrated lime. 

Fertility plots are located on the following properties: The 
Sahara Coal Company, Saline County; The United Electric Coal Companies, 
Fidelity mine, Perry County; The United Electric Coal Companies, Buck- 
heart mine, Fulton County; The Midland Electric Coal Corporation, Knox 
County; and the Northern Illinois Coal Company, G-rundy County. Three of 
the locations were seeded and treated in the fall of 1948, and the re- 
maining plots will be completed in the spring of 1949. 

The plot design used on leveled and "strike-off" areas and for 
different levels of nitrogen applications on plots growing cultivated 
crops is given in Figure 5-C. Experiments E and F are seeded on this 
type of plot. The size of these plots are 1/400 and 1/200 acres. Level- 
ed plots are located in southern Illinois on the Midwest Radiant Corpor- 
ation property in St. Clair County; in western Illinois on the Midland 
Electric Coal Corporation, Rapatee mine, in Knox County; and in northern 
Illinois on Northern Illinois Coal Corporation property in Grundy coun- 
ty. "Strike-off" plots are located on the Midwest Corporation property 
and on the Fairview Collieries property in Fulton County. 

Experiments B and D are seeded on essentially the same design 
of plots as Experiment A except that the plots are 30 feet wide instead 
of 15 feet. 
SEEDING DATA. 

ORIGIN AND VIABILITY OF SEED USED: 

The forage species used, the companies from which the seed was 

obtained, the germination, purity and origin of the seed sown are listed 

i 



- 21 - 



8 








Treatments . 


1 


- No nitrogen. 


2 


- 20 pounds elemental nitrogen. 


3 


- 40 pounds elemental nitrogen. 


4 


- 60 pounds elemental nitrogen. 


5 


- 80 pounds elemental nitrogen. 


6 


-100 pounds elemental nitrogen. 


7 


-120 pounds elemental nitrogen. 


8 


-500 pounds 8-8-8 fertilizer. 



The plot design used on leveled areas for culti- 
vated crops with different levels of nitrogen 
application. Plots 1/400 acre. (Fig. 5-C) 



- 22 - 



in Appendix E. \Therever possible locally grovm seed was used. Much of 
the seed of the native grasses was obtained from the Soil Conservation 
Service Nurseries at Mandan, North Dakota and Manhattan, Kansas. 

TIME OF SEEDIN G; 

The species were seeded in both the spring and the fall in all 
three areas, southern, western and northern Illinois. Because of the 
compact, plastic nature of the surface material of the spoils in north- 
ern Illinois and also because of the latitude future seedings will be 
made in that area only in the spring. In the fall of 1947 the seeding 
dates ranged from August 21 to September 24. During this period of time 
there appears to be little difference in results obtained. The moisture 
condition of the spoil banks and climate for that year were more impor- 
tant. In general, however, it is not recommended to seed later than 
about September 15 for most species. 

The time of spring seedings in 1948 ranged from March 3 to 
April 10. In general the legumes seeded earliest made the better initial 
growth, but by fall there was little difference between early and late 
seedings. 

Table 5 lists the number of plots of each of the legumes species 
seeded and the growth observed in both spring and fall seedings. The 
results of the grass plots are changing constantly. Some of the grasses 
are slow to germinate, and because of the lack of nitrogen in spoil bank 
soils are slower to become established. Therefore a summary table for 
the grasses is not included at this time. A total of 136 plots on three 
locations was destroyed during 1948 as a result of mining operations and 
much valuable information was lost. 

In most cases, on fresh spoils especially, legumes did better 



- 23 - 



TABLE 5. SURVIVAL OF LEGUMES SEEDED ON PLOTS IN THE FALL AND SPRING AS 

OF SEPTEMBER, 1948. 



Number 

of 
Plots Fall seeded plots. Spring seeded plots* 
Total. Good Poor-None Good Poor-None. Notes. 



Specie. 



Alfalfa 


34 


4 


Alsike 


29 


2 


Birdsfoot trefoil 


35 


• 


Korean lespedeza 


33 


- 


Ladino 


35 


- 


Mix legumes 


25 


4 


Red clover 


33 


4 


Sweet clover 


33 


2 


Hub am 


17 




Spanish Sweet clover 


8 


— 


Kobe lespedeza 


10 


- 


Sericea lespedeza 


12 


- 


Common lespedeza 


4 


— 


Mammoth clover 


14 


2 


Crimson 


14 


3 


Subterraean 


14 


_ 


VJhite Dutch 


12 


_ 


Hop 


14 


— 


Bur 


7 


_ 


Alyce 


15 


_ 


Austrian winter pea 


9 


• 


Big broadleaf trefoil 


20 


- 


Yellow trefoil 


18 


3 


Persian clover 


5 


„. 


Lupines 


9 


_ 


Lappacea 


15 


mm 


Sanfoin 


13 


m 



Crown vetch 5 

Butter clover 12 
Early Korean lespedeza 7 



8 
6 



8 
12 
14 



4 
6 

10 



3 
6 
2 
6 



4 
1 



20 
15 



14 

15 

9 



15 
13 
13 



8 
4 
9 
4 
2 
9 
2 



10 
10 



2 






3 
6 



2 


Best. 


6 


Comes in natural- 




ly on many banks 




especially in 




valleys. 


7 


Good promise, 




spring seed only. 


6 


OK on fresh spoils 




in spring. 


12 


Good in valleys 




generally, spring 




seed only. 


2 


Good overall. 


7 




8 


Root rot, pea aphid 




& sweet clover wee- 




vil hurt young sweet 




clover in 1948. 


9 




4 




1 




6 




2 




3 


Good. 


6 




8 




3 




8 


Very little seen. 


7 


None. 


15 


None. 


5 




10 


Birdsfoot trefoil 




better. 


4 


Good in south. 


5 




9 


None 


13 




13 


Few plants seen. 




Perhaps an inocul- 




ation problem. 


5 


Old seed. 


4 


Shows promise. 


1 


Use in more north- 



Kudzu 
Kudzu 



5 

4 



ern latitudes. 

1947, 500 plants 
poorstock. 

1948, 200 plants 
good. 



- 24 - 



when seeded in the spring. Alfalfa, yellow trefoil, mammoth, medium red 
clover, and button clover, an annual alfalfa, gave fair to satisfactory- 
stands when seeded in the fall. Grasses seeded in the fall in southern 
and western Illinois on some plots were better than when seeded in the 
spring. Kentucky bluegrass, the tall fescues, orchard grass, and red- 
top did well when seeded in the fall on fresh spoils. From results ob- 
tained to date it appears to be advisable to seed grasses with the legumes 
in a mixture instead of seeding legumes alone first and then trying to 
introduce grasses into the stand at a later date. 

RATE OF SEEDING AND CONDITION OF SPOIL BANKS: 

Seedling counts were made on a number of species at several lo- 
cations. A one-foot square was used. The counts again indicate that 
less than one-half of the seed that was seeded germinated and established 
itself on the slopes. Much of the seed was washed down into the valleys 
where heavy stands were generally noted. This is especially true of the 
larger seeded-species. 

Thus it seems evident that a heavier seeding should be used 
than that normally recommended in farming practices} also, there is prob- 
ably an ideal time to seed the species to result in a minimum washing away 
of the seed. "When possible the seeding after a rain when the banks are 
moist and more receptive to the seed is recommended. Heavy rains immedi- 
ately following the seeding cause washing which reduces the stands. 

Better stands and ground cover are usually obtained on north 
than on south slope exposures. It was also noted that the top two or 
three feet of the peaks were not well covered. Striking-off to a width 
of 12 to 16 feet will do much to improve the stand of forage since the tops 
will be flattened and the length of the slope, usually subject to severe 

erosions will generally be shortened. Also the tops thus prepared have 

i 



- 25 - 



made good seedbeds. Figure 6 shows an area treated in this way before 
seeding. 

Ground cover studies on an established spoil bank pasture taken 
in the fall of 1948 show about 91 percent ground cover on the strike-off 
tops, compared to 64 percent ground cover on untreated tops. The percen- 
tage of weeds was 6 percent higher on the untreated than on the strike-off 
tops. 

Various rates of application of seed of species seeded alone 
and in mixtures are being studied. Tyner (4) suggested that the seeding 
rates commonly used should be increased by 30 percent. An excellent stand 
was obtained in southern Illinois by seeding a mixture of legumes at the 
rate of 17 pounds per acre. At this time it is recommended that at least 
a minimum of 15 pounds of mixture should be seeded depending on the spe- 
cies used. Experiments on this problem are still being carried on. 

Grass species and grass-legume mixtures have been seeded into a 
pre-established stand of sweet clover, weeds, etc. (Experiment B.) In 
most of the cases the areas have not been grazed. Satisfactory stands 
of sweet clover and weeds have not been established by seeding into such 
areas. Generally the stands of sweet clover and wesds have been so rank 
that other species cannot compete with the established growth. Plots 
seeded on such areas that are pastured are still being studied. Thus it 
seems better to seed grasses along with the legumes in a mixture on fresh 
spoils than to wait and attempt to get the grasses started later in most 
locations. Far better stands are established on fresh spoils than on 
older spoils. If pasture establishment is to be the land use of the strip- 
ped land, the fresh, bare spoil banks should be seeded every year as 
rapidly as stripped up to the actual shovel operation. 



- 26 - 




Spoil bank ridges struck-off to a width of 12-16* by means of a bull- 
dozer, Fairview Collieries Corporation, Fulton County. (Fig* 6) 



- 27 - 



GR07, r TH AND PROGRESS OF THE SPECIES t 

The forage species seeded on the spoil banks were listed in the 
first annual report and the legumes used are listed in Table 5. As is 
shown in the table and was known previously, species such as the lespe- 
dezas, sweet clovers, birdsfoot trefoil, and ladino should be seeded only 
in the spring. The legumes showing up best are alfalfa, sweet clover, 
lespedeza, yellow trefoil, birdsfoot trefoil, medium and mammoth red 
clover, and alsike clover. Ladino, button clover and Kudzu have given 
very good stands under some conditions. Legumes, even though inoculated 
are not always well nodulated. Yellow and unthrifty appearing legume 
plants may be due to this fact. 

Of the grasses orchard grass, ryegrass, the fescues (meadow, 
Alta and Kentucky 31), redtop, timothy, Kentucky and Canada bluegrass, 
and bromegrass have been most successful. Orchard grass has given the 
best results to date. Ryegrass starts extremely fast but lacks persis- 
tence so that by the second year very little is left. Rhodes grass seed- 
ed in only three of four locations has shown interesting growth. More 
plots of this grass will be seeded in 1949. Figures 7 to 12 give a pic- 
torial record of forage growth obtained on spoil banks. 

MIXTURE SEEDINGS : 

Better pastures usually result when a mixture of different gras- 
ses and legumes is seeded than when a specie is seeded alone. There are 
a number of reasons for using mixtures. They give more complete coverage 
and better control of erosion as the foliage protects the soil and the 
roots hold it. More forage is produced and the pastures are likely to be 
productive over a longer period as the legumes furnish nitrogen for the 
grasses and these in turn lessen winter killing of the legumes. Cattle 
and sheep are less apt to bloat on mixtures of grasses and legumes than 



- 28 - 




Sweet clover in full bloom on spoil banks. Northern Illinois 
Coal Corporation, Grundy county. July, 1948. (Fig* 7) 



~ 29 - 




Red clover growing on spoil banks in St. Clair county, 
Midwest Radiant Corporation. 1948. (Fig* 8) 



- 30 - 




\-meJ! 



Mixture of ryegrass, alfalfa, sweet clover, alsike mam- 
moth clover, and birdsfoot trefoil seeded on spoil banks. 
Little John Coal Company, Knox County, 1949. (Fig. 9) 



- 31 - 





x 4 



Mm* 



?. 






Individual red clover, bromegrass, and alfalfa plants 
that were growing on spoil banks. Truax-Traer Coal 
Company, Fulton County, 1948. (Fig. 10) 



- 32 - 




Ladino growing on a strike-off area plot. Midwest Radiant Corpor- 
ation, St. Clair County, 1947. (Fig. 11) 



- 33 - 




Kudzu in foreground showing good ground cover. United 
Electric Coal Companies, Fidelity mine. Perry County, 
1948. (Fig. 12) 



■ 



- 34 - 



on legumes alone. Mixed pastures afford a variety of grazing and help 
provide a well balanced ration. 

Mixtures that have been successful when seeded on fresh spoils 
in the spring include: 













Total 












per acre. 






Lbs. 




Lbs. 


Lbs. 


(1) 


Ryegrass 


5 


Mammoth clover 


1.5 






Alfalfa 


2 


Alsike clover 


1 






Sweet clover 


2.5 


Birdsfoot trefoil 


1 


13 


(2) 


Alfalfa 


4 


Lespedeza, K. 


5 






Sweet clover 


5 


Ladino 


1 


15 


(3) 


Sweet clover 


3 


Brome 


4 






Alfalfa 


3 


Orchard grass 


3 






Lespedeza 


4 


Redtop 


2 





19 



A mixture recommended for early fall seeding is: 



Alfalfa 


5 


Orchard grass 


3 


Mammoth clover 


3 


Redtop 


2 


Alsike 


2 


Timothy 


2 



17 
Sweet clover is the only specie of which forage yields were 
taken in 1948. Dry matter yields taken from three areas in western Illi- 
nois averaged 2.01 ton per acre. In connection with the pasturing proj- 
ects, yields from an established spoil bank pasture in western Illinois 
were 1.39 tons per acre and from a less well established area in south- 
ern Illinois of which a large percentage was sweet clover was 1.17 tons 
of dry matter per acre. 

As noted in Table 5 sweet clover seeded in the spring failed 
on about one-half of the plots. Sweet clover weevil and pea aphid killed 
much of the young growth in 1948. Root rot, Phytophtora cactorum, killed 
or severely damaged second year sweet clover stands in many areas. Yel- 
low blossomed varieties seemed harder hit than the white blossomed vari- 
i 



- 35 - 



ety. It is doubtful if the clover in such areas has reseeded itself. 

RESULTS OF EXPERIMENTS V.'ITH CULTIVATED CROPS: 

The following cultivated crops were sown on leveled areas in 
St. Clair and Grundy counties; wheat, rye, oats, corn, and soybeans for 
grain production, and sweet sudan — soybean for hay. The plot design is 
shown in Figure 5-C. The results obtained with rye seeded on leveled 
and strike-off areas in St. Clair county are listed in Table 6-A. 
Wheat yields obtained were very similar to those obtained with rye. The 
data indicates what may be expected if adequate amounts of nitrogen only 
are added. Rye growing on a leveled area is shown in Figure 13. 

Yields of soybean-sweet sudan hay are listed in Table 6-B. The 
increase in yield was due primarily to the heavier growth of sweet sudan 
where higher applications of nitrogen were made. Soybeans, even though 
they were inoculated, did not contribute much to the total weight. Growth 
of this mixture is shown in Figure 14. 

Soybeans that were seeded alone did not thrive any better than 
those seeded in the sweet sudan. No difference due to treatment was 
noted. Plant growth was small, approximately 12 to 18 inches in height, 
and very few pods were set. 

Corn was also planted on treated plots. The plots were 43 feet 
long by six feet wide, with 16 hills per row and 2 rows per plot. Six 
different treatments were applied as follows: (1) 50 pounds of elemental 
nitrogen per acre was hill-dropped; (2) 50 pounds elemental nitrogen per 
acre hill-dropped at planting time plus 70 pounds per acre side-dressed 
when the corn was about knee high; (3) 100 pounds of elemental nitrogen 
plus 100 pounds of potash (6C$) was broadcast ahead of planting; (4) 
100 pounds of potash hill-dropped per acre; (5) corn planted with inocul- 
ated Kingwa soybeans; (6) no treatment. 



- 36 - 



TABLE 6-A. RYE YIELDS ON LEVELED AND STRIKE-OFF PLOTS ON 







MIDWEST RADIANT 


CORPORATION 


PROPERTY 


IN ST. 


CLAIR COUNTY. 


Treatment 


;al 


Number of 
plots leveled 




Yields 




Test 


lbs. el erne ni 


Leveled 


Strike- 


loTf 


Weight 


nitrogen. 




strike-off. 


bu/A 




bu/A 




average. 







2 1 


5.3 




5.8 




53 


20 




2 1 


10.0 




12.4 




53 


40 




2 1 


13.6 




17.8 




52 


60 




2 1 


24.8 




18.2 




52 


80 




2 1 


22.9 




10.4 




52 


100 




2 1 


26.0 




28.1 




51 


120 




2 1 


30.2 




.... 




52.5 


500 lb. 8-8- 


.8 


2 1 


13.2 




13.6 




53 



TABLE 6-B. SWEET SUDAN-SOYBEAN HAY YIELDS ON LEVELED PLOTS. 





Treatment 


Number 






lbs. elemental 


of 


Yield 


Chemical 


nitrogen. 


Plots . 


tons/A. 


analysis. 





2 


0.413 




20 


2 


2.112 




40 


2 


2.358 




60 


2 


3.096 




80 


2 


3.204 




100 


2 


3.804 




120 


2 


6.818 




500 lb. 8-8-8 


2 


1.428 





- 37 - 




Rye growing on a leveled area. Midwest Radiant Cor- 
poration. St. Clair County, 1948. (Fig. 13) 



- 38 - 







'V* 













m 




.as 



» ** 



* 



* 



- ¥! 



Sweet sudan - soybean mixture growing on a leveled 
area. Midwest Radiant Corporation, St. Clair Coun- 
ty, 1948. (Fig. 14) 



- 39 - 



The yields obtained on the corn plots were as follows: 

Yield 
Plot Number. Treatment. bushels per acre. 



1 50 lbs. nitrogen per acre 17.1 

hill-dropped. 

2 50 lbs. nitrogen per acre 60.5 

hill-dropped plus 70 
lbs. per acre side- 
dressed when corn about 
18 inches high, 

3 100 lbs. nitrogen and 100 lbs. 42.3 

potash per acre, broadcast. 

4 100 lbs. potash, hill-dropped. 

5 Inoculated soybeans planted in 

the hill with the corn. 

6 No treatment. 
Figure 15 shows the corn on plots (3) and (4). 

"Wheat and rye seeded on similar plots in Grundy county died 
out in the spring even though fair growth was obtained in the fall. The 
texture of the soil is high in clay and does not have as good drainage 
as that in St. Clair County. 

These plots of cultivated crops would indicate that where areas 
are free of rock and where the soil material is silty in texture, appli- 
cations of nitrogen result in good growth. 

ANIMAL GAINS AS A METHOD OF MEASURING YIELDS AND QUALITY OF 
SPOIL BANK FORAGE . 

PASTURING PHASE: 



In an effort to determine the value of a strip-mined land for 
agricultural production, a project in which beef cattle grazed on spoil 
bank pastures was initiated in 1948. The grazing tests were carried out 
on lands in Fulton county owned by Mr. Byron Somers and on lands in Perry 
county owned by the United Electric Coal Companies, Fidelity mine, 



■ • 



- 40 - 




'ma 



^4 *.,* 

h 



■* 












':J*'\ W t 



Growth of corn on treated and untreated plots on a 
leveled area. Midwest Radiant Corporation, St. 
Clair County, 1948. (Fig« 15) 



- 41 - 



Twenty yearling steers of medium grade were used in each of 
the two areas. Ten steers were grazed on spoil bank pastures, while 
the same number were run on ordinary farm pastures as a check, or con- 
trol group. The control pasture used in Fulton County was an 80-acre 
bluegrass pasture within a mile of the area grazed by the test group. 
Ten steers on 80 acres insured adequate forage the whole season. As no 
suitable established pasture could be secured in Perry County for the 
test, the control group was grazed at the Dixon Springs Experiment Sta- 
tion which is located in Pope County about 75 miles southeast of the 
Perry County strip-mined land. 

The spoils pasture in Fulton county on which the test was made 
was mined about 12 years ago. Sweet clover was seeded in 1938. Grasses 
and other legumes were seeded later. A good stand of grasses and legumes 
has been secured over a considerable portion of the area. 

A survey of the botanical composition of the pastures was made 
in the spring and again in the fall. On April 29, 1948, measurements 
were made by using a quadrate and estimating the percentage of growing 
cover contributed by each specie in each quadrate. On October 7, 1948, 
the ground cover was obtained by means of the point quadrate method. 
Bluegrass and sweet clover were the dominant species in the spoil bank 
pasture. Table 7 shows the percent each specie is contributing to the 
pasture sward and the percent of bare area. 

Yields were taken by using four foot square metal cages in each 
pasture which protected the sample areas from grazing. The cages were 
placed in locations representative of the general area. On the spoil 
banks pasture the yield thus computed was found to be 1.4 tons of oven- 
dry forage per acre. The yield of the bluegrass pasture was computed 
to be 1.0 ton per acre. Figure 16 shows the cage used to get the yield 



- 42 - 



TABLE 7. PERCENT EACH SPECIE IS CONTRIBUTING TO THE TOTAL 
COVER AND THE PERCENT OF BARE AREA OF T HE SPOIL BANK 
PASTURE AND THE UNDISTURBED BLUEGRASS PASTURE, 1948. 



Specie, 



Spoil bank pasture 
April 29, 1948 October 7, 1948 

Spring Fall 

percent of total. percent of total. 



Undisturbed 
Bluegrass pas- 
ture April 29, 
1948, Soring 
percent of 
total. 



Grasses: 
Bluegrass 
Redtop 
Timothy 
Bromegrass 
Wild grasses 



36 
7 
7 
9 
2 



41.0 
7.0 
3.0 

10.0 
5.0 



63 
1 
3 



Legumes: 
Alfalfa 
Sweet clover 
Red clover 
Alsike clover 
White clover 
Lespedeza 



1 

11 

6 

4 
1 

Trace 



0.5 
18.0 
2.0 
7.0 
0.5 



5 
Trace 



V;eeds 



Dead or no vegetation 



8 



8 (100?Q 



6 (100f0 
6 



10 

11 (100^) 



- 43 - 









Four-foot square metal cage used to protect an area 
from grazing and under which forage was cut to determ- 
ine forage yields of pastures; Lot 2 bluegrass pasture 
in Fulton County, 1948. (Fig. 16) 






- 44 - 



data. 



The Perry county area has been stripped more recently and the 
pasture is not as well established. The area was seeded in the spring 
of 1947. The following species were observed growing: sweet clover, al- 
falfa, red clover, lespedeza, orchard grass, ryegrass, redtop, alta fes- 
cue, timothy, and Kentucky bluegrass. During the first part of the graz- 
ing season the forage was primarily sweet clover. During the latter part 
of the season, the orchard grass came along very fast and formed a good 
part of the forage ration. Yields of oven-dry forage taken in Perry coun- 
ty by the same method as described for Western Illinois were computed to 
be 1.2 tons per acre. A large part of the forage weights resulted from 
the good sweet clover growth in the early spring. 

The pasture at the Dixon Springs Experiment Station was a grass- 
legume mixture on improved land. 

The results obtained in terms of animal gains during the pas- 
ture season, a total of 163 days, were as follows: 

Av. Wt. Av. Wt. Av. Total Av. Daily 

April 22 1/ Oct. 2 l/ Gain l/ Gain l/ 
lbs. lbs. Ifcs. lbs. 



FULTON COUNTY TEST 

Test Steers, Spoils Pasture 
Control Steers, Grass-legume 

Pasture 



669 
659 



863 
870 



194 
211 



1.19 
1.29 



890 
865 



173 

200 



1.06 
1.23 



PERRY COUNTY TEST 

Test Steers, Spoils Pasture^/ 717 
Control Steers, Grass-legume 665 

Pasture 

V Weights at Urbana April 22 before the cattle were trucked to their re- 
spective pastures and at Urbana on October 2, the day following their 
return. Obviously the cattle suffered considerable shrinkage on both 
trips. 

2/ 

- Average initial and final weights on only three steers returned to Ur- 
bana. 

In analyzing the individual gains, it was found that for the 



- 45 - 



Lot 1 steers on spoil bank pasture in Fulton county, the total gains varied 
from 280 pounds to 130 pounds for the 163 pasture day period. The average 
total gain was 194 pounds and the average daily gain was 1.19 pounds. For 
the Lot 2 steers on bluegrass pasture in Fulton County, the range in total 
gains was the same as Lot 1 while the average total gains were 211 pounds 
and the average daily gains were 1.29 pounds. Figure 17 shows the nature 
of the spoil bank pasture in Fulton county. Figure 18 shows the Lot 2 cat- 
tle on the bluegrass pasture. 

The average weights listed for the Lot 3 steers on the Perry- 
County spoil bank pasture are for three steers only. It was impossible to 
get the rest of the steers from the spoil bank pasture at the time the truck 
picked up the steers on the grass-legume pasture at the Dixon Springs Ex- 
periment Station to truck them back to Urbana for the feet- lot phase. See 
Table 8 for individual data on all steers. 

FEED LOT PHASE : 

The steers were in the feed lot a total of 45 days, during which 
time they were fed broken ear corn and clover hay. Here again there was 

wide variation in the total gains made by individual animals. See Table 8. 
The average daily gains in the drylot were: Lot 1 - 1.98 pounds; Lot 2 - 
2.18 pounds; Lot 3 - 2.07 pounds; and Lot 4 - 2.09 pounds. Figures 19 and 
20 show the steers after being in the drylot for approximately 20 days. 

A summary of the gains made in the feed lot and the market grades 
and dressing percentages is given in Table 9. 

CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF FORAGE PLAN TS. 

S POIL BANK FORAGE : 

The species that became established were sampled at various times 
during the year in order to determine the chemical composition of forage 
plants grown on the spoil banks. Approximately 350 such samples have been 
collected and prepared and are being analyzed. 



- 46 - 




Showing cattle and spoil bank pasture on which Lot 1 cattle grazed. Mr. 
Byron Somers, Fulton County, 1948. (Fig* 17) 



- 47 - 












Undisturbed bluegrass pasture and several Lot 2 cat- 
tle. Mr. Byron Somers, Fulton County, 1948. 

(Fig. 18) 



- 48 - 



TABLE 8. DA TA GIV ING INDIVIDUAL WEIGHTS AND GRADES OF 

STEERS PASTURED AMD FED_Ilj_1948. 

A. Lot 1 — Established Spoil Bank Pastures in Fulton County. 



Tattoo 



161 
65 
69 
73 
77* 
81 
85 
89 
93 
97 



Pasture weights. 



On 



lbs. 

690 
700 
660 
610 
650 
680 
630 
770 
660 
640 



Off 



Gain on Weight 
pasture. off 
dry lot. 



Gain Total Wt. of 

in gain, warm u#0 f I# 
drvlot. carcass. 



Grade by 



lbs. 

910 
870 
870 
750 
840 
960 
850 
920 
790 
870 



lbs. 

220 
170 
210 
140 
190 
280 
220 
150 
130 
230 



lbs. 

1040 

1000 
930 
860 
770 
940 
950 

1050 
960 

1020 



lbs. lbs. 



130 
130 
60 
110 
-70 
-20 
100 
130 
170 
150 



350 
300 
270 
250 
120 
260 
320 
280 
300 
380 



lbs. 

618 

581 
551 
496 
426 
534 
532 
552 
553 
534 



B- 

B- 

B- 

B- 

O 

B+ 

B 

B- 

B+ 

B- 



Fed'l. 
Gov't. 



B- 

B 

B- 

C* 

C 

B + 

B 

C + 

B-f 

B 



Averages 669.0 



863.0 194.0 



952.0 106.7* 283.0 



B. Lot 2 — Undisturbed Bluegrass Pasture in Fulton County. 



131 


640 


66 


640 


70 


670 


74 


700 


78 


620 


82 


660 


86 


700 


90 


680 


94 


610 


98 


670 


Averages 


659 



910 


270 


1030 


120 


390 


590 


B 


920 


280 


1020 


100 


380 


520 


B 


800 


130 


830 


30 


160 


488 


B 


920 


220 


1030 


110 


330 


570 


B 


780 


160 


940 


160 


320 


505 


B 


900 


240 


980 


80 


320 


536 


B 


910 


210 


1000 


90 


300 


560 


B 


870 


190 


990 


120 


310 


561 


B 


770 


160 


840 


70 


230 


481 


B 


920 


250 


1020 


100 


350 


566 


B 


870.0 


211.0 


968.0 


98.0 


309.0 







B- 

C* 

B 

C + 

B 

C + 

B- 

B- 

C + 

B- 



C. Lot 3 — Spoil Bank Pastures in Perry County. 



149 
67 
71 
75 
79 
83 
87 
91 
95 



600 
680 
700 
710 
680 
630 
760 
740 
670 



850 



870 



950 



170 



150 



190 



990 140 310 



890 



20 170 



1070 120 310 



No carcass 



information 



obtained. 



Averages 675.0 



890.0 170.0 



983.0 93.0 263.0 



(Continued) 



- 49 - 



TABLE 8. — (continued) 



D. Lot 4 — Grass-Legume Pasture at Dixon Springs Experiment Station. 



Tattoo 



Pasture weights. Gain on Weight Gain Total Yit. of 

Oi'i' pasture. off in gain, warm uTof I. 

dry lot. dry lot. carcass. 



OH 



Grade by 



Fed'l. 
Gov't, 



lbs. 



101 


660 


68 


740 


72 


620 


76 


630 


80 


650 


84 


710 


88 


630 


92 


660 


96 


620 


100 


730 


Averages 


665. ( 



lbs. 



lbs. 



lbs. 



lbs 



lbs. 



910 


250 


1000 


90 


340 


890 


150 


940 


50 


200 


820 


200 


920 


100 


300 


760 


130 


790 


30 


160 


920 


270 


1040 


120 


390 


900 


190 


1020 


120 


310 


820 


190 


870 


50 


240 


800 


200 


990 


130 


330 


860 


240 


1030 


170 


410 


940 


180 


990 


80 


260 



865.0 200.0 



lbs. 



No carcass 

information 

obtained. 



959.0 94.0 294.0 



* This steer was sick, therefore, 9 steers were used in computing the average 
gains in drylot. 

AFG:bjs 
1-20-49 



- 50 - 




Lot 1 steers in the drylot. These steers were grazed on an establish, 
ed spoil bank pasture in Fulton County, 1948. (Fig. 19) 



- 51 - 




Lot 2 steers, in drylot. These steers were grazed on an undisturbed blue- 
grass pasture in Fulton County, 1948. (Fig* 20) 



- 52 - 



TABLE 9. FATTENING IN DRY LOT AFTER REMOVAL FROM PASTURE. 



Lot 1. 



Lot 2. 



Lot 3. 



Lot 4. 



Number of steers 10 

Average weight into feed lot, 

October 2, pounds 863 

Average weight off feed lot, 

November 16, pounds 952 

Average gain per head, pounds 89 

Average daily gain in dry lot, 

pounds 1.98 

Average gain per head on pasture 

163 days, pounds 194 

Average gain in dry lot, 45 days, 

pounds 89 

Average total gain, pounds 283 

Average daily ration 

broken ear corn, pounds 17.1 

clover hay, pounds 6.0 

Selling price Chicago, November 17, 

1948 (purchased by Swift & Co.) 21.50 

Dressing percentage (Swift* s) 56.8 

Carcass grades 

Mr. Johnson - University of Illi- 
nois. 2 B+ 

1 B 
6 B- 
1 C + 



10 , 


3* 


10 


870 


890 


865 


968 


983 


959 


98 


93 


94 



2.18 



211 

98 
309 



17.1 
6.0 



22.00 
56.0 



1 B 
9 B 



2.07 



173 

93 
263 



18.7 
5.9 



23.15 



2.09 



200 

94 

294 



16.1 
6.0 



24.25 



Not obtained. 



No carcass 



information 



Government Grader 



2 B* 

3 B 
2 B- 
2 C4- 
1 C 



2 B 
4 B- 
4 C* 



obtained. 



* Average, initial and final weights on only three steers returned to Urbana. 



AFG:bjs 
1-19-49 



- 53 - 



This section of the report will be submitted later when some 
of the results of the chemical analysis of spoil bank forage are com- 
pleted. Table 10 gives the chemical composition of hay and forage crops 
grown on farm land over a period of years. (3) 

DISSEMINATION OF INFORMATION . 

An inspection tour of spoil bank reclamation work in Indiana 
and Illinois was conducted jointly by the Purdue Agricultural Experiment 
Station and the Illinois Agricultural Experiment Station, cooperating 
with the Illinois Coal Strippers Association on June 16-19 inclusive. 
June 18 and 19 were spent touring southern and western Illinois areas. 

Those attending the Illinois tour wholly or in part were: 

Dean C. R. Orton, Director, W. Virginia Exp. Sta., Morgantown, W. Va. 

S. L. Galpin, Hydro logist, W. Virginia Exp. Sta., Morgantown, W. Va. 

E. H. Tyner, Assoc. Agronomist, W. Virginia Exp. Sta., Morgantown, W. Va. 

H. A. Wilson, Assoc. Bacteriologist, W. Va. Exp. Sta., Morgantown, W. Va. 

A. Alexander, Chief, State Dept. of Mines, Charleston, W. Va. 

W. Moore, Inspector, State Dept. of Mines, Charleston, W. Va. 

J. Hall, Inspector, State Dept. of Mines, Charleston, W. Va. 

A. G. Chapman, Forester, Central States Forest Exp. Sta., Columbus, 0. 

G. A. Limstrom, Forester, Central States Forest Exp. Sta, Columbus, 0. 

John Reiser, Ohio Power Company, Dover, 0. 

H.^Kohnke, Soil Scientist, Purdue Agri. Exp. Sta., Lafayette, Ind. 

E. Stivers, Purdue Agri. Exp. Sta., Lafayette, Ind. 

0. B. Riggs, General Manager, Meadowlark Farms, Sullivan, Ind. 

J. Hayes, Agricultural Agent, Illinois Central System, Paducah, Ky. 

James W. Bristow, Sec.-Treas. Illinois Coal Strippers Assn., Chicago, 111. 

Louis S. Weber, Land Use Eng'r., 111. Coal Strippers Assn., Springfield, 111. 

R. D. Lane, C.S.F.E.S., Carbondale Branch, Carbondale, 111. 

A. L. Lang, Agronomist, 111. Agri. Exp. Sta., Urbana, 111. 

R. R. Snapp, Animal Science, 111. Agri. Exp. Sta., Urbana, 111. 

F. C. Francis, Animal Science, 111. Agri. Exp. Sta., Urbana, 111. 
H. G. Russell, Animal Science, Extension, Urbana, 111. 

A. F. Grandt, Agronomist, 111. Agri. Exp. Sta., Urbana, 111. 

D. Larson, Staff Forester, 111. Div. of Forestry, Springfield, 111. 
Otto Bauman, Dist. Conservationist, Belleville, 111. 

F. C. Spencer, Cons. Botanist and Plant Pathologist, Lebanon, 111. 

P. N. Seastrom, Farm Manager, DuQuoin, 111. 

J. A. Watt, Farm Adviser, Fulton County, Canton, 111. 

C. W. Rovey, Farmer, Farmersville, 111. 

E. Schilf, Veterinarian, U.S.B.A.I., Canton, 111. 

B. Somers, Farmer, Canton, 111. 

A. H. Truax, Deep Valley Farms, Canton, 111. 

D. H. LaVoi, Deep Valley Farms, Canton, 111. 






- 54 - 



TABLE 10. HAY AND FORAGE CROPS t Chemical Composition 

Over A Period of Years. 2/ 



Crop 



Number of 
samples. 



N 



Average pounds per ton of crop. 
Protein P K Ca Mg Fe 



Mn 



Legumes: 



Alfalfa 




50 


55.0 


344 


Red Clover 




50 


47.4 


296 


Alsike 




20 


47.0 


294 


Lespedeza 




50 


40.4 


252 


Sweet Clover (full 
bloom) 


7 


34.4 


215 


Sweet Clover 

October-November 


17 


41.4 


259 


Sweet Clover 

April -May 




30 


69.0 


431 



3.6 24.0 35.0 9.8 .16 .02 

3.2 26.0 29.4 9.2 .28 .10 

4.2 22.4 26.2 10.6 .30 .09 

2.9 18.9 17.0 5.7 .20 .14 

3.0 19.4 42.0 13.4 

2.2 16.0 27.0 12.4 .30 .20 

6.0 32.0 32.8 11.4 



Ladino 



441 



7.6 



29.2 



Grasses: 








Kentucky Bluegrass 


50 


29.4 


184 


Timothy 


50 


19.6 


122 


Red top 


50 


21.2 


132 


Orchard Grass 


30 


19.4 


121 


Bromegrass 


50 


29.4 


186 


Big Bluestem 


10 


21.4 


134 



3.8 32.8 6.2 4.0 .26 .19 

3.0 31.4 5.6 3.6 .16 .14 

3.4 31.8 8.4 4.4 .18 .43 

3.6 38.0 5.4 4.2 .16 .56 

3.4 44.3 8.0 3.0 .12 .24 

3.0 29.6 7.6 4.1 .29 .12 



3/ Snider, H. J. - Bulletin 518, 



AFG:bjs 
1-25-49 



-55 - 



FUTURE PLANS. 

The committee planning the field trip for the summer meeting of 
the American Society of Agronomy at the University of Illinois has been 
asked to consider including an inspection stop at one of the locations 
in western or in southern Illinois where vegetation and reclamation work 
is being carried on. 

Seedings will be made during the following year in which major 
emphasis will be placed on mixture seedings. Yield measurements, animal 
gains, and other data will be collected so as to attempt to measure the 
carrying capacity of various spoil bank pastures. 

Plans are being made to again measure animal weights, using both 
beef cattle and sheep as a method of determining forage yields. 

Samples of forage material growing on the spoil banks will again 
be taken at various times during the growing season so that the chemical 
composition of the forage may be determined. 

Bibliography: 

1. Croxton, Y/. C. "Revegetation of Illinois Coal Stripper Lands" - 

Ecology Volume IX Number 2, 1928. 

2. Odell, R. "How Productive Are the Soils of Central Illinois" - 

Illinois Agricultural Bulletin 522. 

3. Snider, H. J. "Chemical Composition of Hay and Forage Crops" - 

Illinois Agricultural Bulletin 518, 1946. 

4. Tyner, E. H. and Smith, R.M. "The Reclamation of the Strip-Mined 

Coal Lands of West Virginia with Forage Species" - Soil Sci- 
ence Society of American Proceedings, Vol^ 10, p. 429-436, 1945. 

NOTE: Tabular material relating to soils and source of seed referred 
to herein have been separately reproduced in mimeograph form 
as an appendix to this report and will be supplied upon request. 



- 56 - 



XJ ~_/ * 



I-S&p 



THE POTENTIALITIES OF REVEGETATING AND UTILIZING 

AGRONOMIC SPECIES ON STRIP MINED AREAS 

IN ILLINOIS 



UN/v? 

AGRICULTURE LIBRA!* 



A PROGRESS REPORT 



COVERING THE THIRD YEAR OF WORK ON A COOPERATIVE INVESTIGATION 

CONDUCTED BY 
UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS, AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION 

AND 
ILLINOIS COAL STRIPPERS ASSOCIATION 



NOTE . 

The agreement covering this investigation provides 
that:- "No account of a cooperative research project shall be 
published by the sponsor or by any other agency, except upon 
approval of the division of the University, or head of the de- 
partment in which the work is being done." 

Permission for the reproduction of this report has 
been granted with the understanding that it is to be released 
for the confidential information of members of Illinois Coal 
Strippers Association only, and not to be quoted or released 
for publication. 



THE LIBRARY OF THt 

jUN 1 9 A 51 



Telephone CEntral 6-7044 



ILLINOIS COAL STRIPPERS ASSOCIATION 

307 NORTH MICHIGAN AVENUE * 
CHICAGO 1, ILLINOIS 



WILLIAM H. COOKE 

PRESIDENT 
CARL T. HAYDEN 

VICE PRESIDENT 



A. J. CHRISTIANSEN 

SECRETARY-TREASURER 



FOREWORD 



To Members of Illinois Coal Strippers Association, 



Gentlemen : 

On February 1, 19l±7, Illinois Coal Strippers Associ- 
ation entered into an agreement with the Agricultural Experiment 
Station, University of Illinois, covering a project of cooperative 
research into the possibilities of revegetating and utilizing 
grasses and legumes on strip mined areas for stock range and other 
purposes. 

This project estimated to require five years of research 
in order to arrive at sound conclusions, is now entering upon its 
fourth year. A progress report covering the first year of opera- 
tion issued on March 19, 19hQ dealt principally with the proposed 
scope and plan of attack on the problem ; a survey of spoil bank 
soils found throughout the state, and preliminary reports on a 
number of seeding projects. A second report issued on March 15, 
19h9 presented further information on spoil bank soil materials, 
and comparisons of such materials with surface soils found on ad- 
joining landj the adaptation of various forage species to spoil 
bank soils; the results of preliminary studies of comparative gains 
made by animals pastured on spoil banks with those pastured on un- 
disturbed blue grass and highly improved grass -legume pasture. 



operation 



The report herewith presented covers the third year of 



7 \ Secretary-Treasurer 



March 6, 1950 



AGRONOMY PROJECT 



NUMBER: 1003 - Third Annual Report. 

TITLE: Agronomic Land Use Research on the Mined Areas 

of the Stripped Coal Lands of Illinois. 

OBJECT: The objectives of the project are to investi- 
gate the potentialities of revegetating 
and utilizing agronomic species on the strip- 
mined areas in Illinois. 

LEADERS: A. L. Lang, R. E. Fuelleman, J. I. Spaeth, and 
F. C. Francis. 



Advisory Committee: - 

Dean H. P. Rusk 

W. L. Burlison 

E. C, Bauer 

J. C. Hackleman 

J. N. Spaeth 

A. J» Christiansen 

Louis S. Weber 

Agronomist - Alten E. Grandt. 



- 6> jo 

AGRONOMIC LAND USE RESEARCH ON THE MINED AREAS 
OF THE STRIPPED COAL LANDS OF ILLINOIS 

By Alt en F. Grand tU 

This is the third annual report of progress made on Agronomy Project 
1003, a cooperative research project of the University of Illinois Agricultural 
Experiment Station and the Illinois Coal Strippers Association covering an 
investigation of the potentialities of revegetating and utilizing agronomic 
species on strip-mined areas in Illinois, While research on this type of 
land use is seemingly slow and results in many cases are variable, definite 
progress has "been made since the initiation of the project. The results in- 
dicate conclusively that under a scientific approach the major part of the 
strip-mined lands in Illinois can "be converted from unsightly tax liabilities 
into lands that can "be covered with grasses, legumes, and livestock. 

Over 1,900 experimental plots have "been laid out at 40 different 
locations on 22 mine properties in 14 counties. Additional plots will "be 
established in 1950. Figure 1 shows the general areas where plots are located. 

SOIL ANALYSIS OF SPOIL BANK SOIL MATERIAL: 

One-thousand-eighty-two soil samples have been collected and they 
have all been tested by the University of Illinois soil testing laboratory. 
Table 1 shows the average amounts of plant nutrients found in the soil material. 
These tests show the average pH to be 6.9, the average available phosphorus 
to be 124 pounds per acre, and the average available potassium to be 170 
pounds per acre. 

The usual pH for agricultural soils ranges from approximately 5«0 
to 6.8. A pH of 7.0 is neutral. Varying with the species grown, the minimum 



1/ Special Research First Assistant, Soil Experiment Fields and Crop Production, 
Department of Agronomy, University of Illinois Agricultural Experiment 
Station, Urbana. 

The author acknowledges with thanks the assistance, advice, and encouragement 
received from Mr. L. S. Weber, Land Use Engineer, Illinois Coal Strippers 
Association, and Mr. H. J. Snider, Assistant Professor of Soil Fertility, 
Illinois Agricultural Experiment Station, in conducting these investigations. 



-2- 



AGRONOMY DEPARTMENT, UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS, URBANA 



89* 



JO DAVIESS STCPHCMSOH WINHtBAGO BOONl Mf-HCURf LAKl 



Coal Compaq 



OGLE 



DCKALB 



LA SALLE 



KAH£ COOK 



OUPA&t 



KCNOALL 



GRUNDY 

L8# 



WILL 




\KAHXAKCt 



Sahara 
2-Ielta 

3-fl-T (Elkville) 
.B. (Fidelity) 

amid 
out hwe stern 




idwest Radiant 

olar 

ittle Sister 
ldf-Morgan 
11-U.E. Buckheart 
12 -U.S. Cuba 
1>T-T. (Piatt H) 
lil-Fairview 
1J -M.E. (Rapateej 
16-Little John t 



IROQUOIS 



16-Little John 
17-M.B. (Shef: 



20 
21 
22 



mm, 



JS 

3CAl£- STATUTE MILIS 



18 -Morris-Northern 
19 -Nor thern 

-Wilmington 

-Northern 



-Ayrshire 



tfrm i LiOH 




M379 






Location of Experimental Plots on Strip-Mined Coal Lands of Illinois 

(Fig. 1) 



-3- 
Table 1.— Soil Analysis of Spoil Bank Material 







No. of 


Acidity 


Phosphorus 


Potassium 






Plot locations 


County 


samples 


average 


average 


average 




Note 








pH a/ 


ib.aj 


lb.a/ 






Southern Illinois 
















Sahara 


Saline 


5* 


M 


90 


169 


Shale 
S. S. 


rock 


Delta 


Williamson 


52 


6.2 


86 


110 






T-T, Elkville 


Jackson 


20 


6.3 


58 


155 


Local 


acid 


(Truax-Traer) 












spots 




N. E. Fidelity 


Perry 


60 


6.7 


145 


204 


Local 
spots 


acid 


Pyramid 


Perry 


44 


7.1 


91 


154 






Southwestern 


Randolph 


3^ 


7.3 


82 


138 


Calc. 


rock 


Midwest Radiant 


St. Clair 


175 


7.1 


116 


131 






Subtotal 




438 


6.6 


105 


147 






Western Ulinoia 
















Solar 


Schuyler 


12 


6.8 


171 


224 


High percent 


Little Sister 


Fulton 


28 


7.7 


157 


179 


Loess 


in 


Morgan 


Fulton 


10 


7.1 


178 


230 


W. Illinois 


U. E., Buckheart 


Fulton 


36 


7.7 


101 


134 






U. E. t Cuba 


Fulton 


32 


7.5 


123 


144 






T. T., Fiatt 


Fulton 


93 


7.8 


146 


155 






Fairview 


Fulton 


44 


6.5 


133 


167 






M. E. Rapatee 


Fulton-Knox 


81 


7.5 


148 


177 






Little John 


Knox 


67 


6.8 


166 


194 






Subtotal 




403 


7.3 


140 


169 






Northern Illinois 
















M. E. Atkinson 


Bureau 


84 


7.4 


157 


264 


Shaly 


material 


Northern Illinois 


G-rundy 


67 


6.7 


139 


198 


Shaly 


material 


Morris 


Grundy 


28 


3.1 


84 


144 


Highly acid 


Wilmington 


Will 


22 


7.7 


55 


161 


Compact and 




■ 










plasti 


c 


Northern Illinois 


Kankakee 


40 


7.6 


110 


184 


Compact and 
plastic 


Subtotal 




241 


6.8 
6.9 


127 


209 






Total and averages 


1 082 


122.7 


169.2 





a/ pH - 7.0 neutral; P - 92 lb/ A, h igh; K 150 - 200 lb/A high 



-V 






pH for optimum growth of most agricultural plants ranges "between 5*5 a ad 
6.5. 

Numerical values for the average mineral content of such highly 
variable material should he used with reservation. For example, of 20 samples 
tested in a single two-acre plot the pH varied from 2.7 to 7.1. The average 
pH was 6.0+. The available potassium content varied from 105 to 300*f pounds 
per acre, with the average being 186 pounds per acre. Yet only minor shifts 
have resulted when additional samples are tested and added to the averages. 
Thus the averages are assumed to be reliably representative. It should be 
stressed again, however, that in planning the development of an area for a 
specific use the soil material should be adequately sampled and thoroughly 
tested. The reaction and mineral content of the soil greatly influence land 
usage. 

SPOIL BANK CLASSIFICATION: 

As the result of the reconnaissance survey conducted by the Central 
State Forest Experiment Station in 19*1-6, strip-mined lands in Illinois have 
been classified on the basis of the acidity and texture of the soil material (2). 
These two conditions are considered to be the basic factors that determine 
potential productivity of spoils and are combined to form the basic spoil 
types (see Table 2). 

Acidity of Spoil Banks: 

The acidity of the surface of the spoil banks varies greatly as does 
the thickness and character of the strata overlying the coal. The overturned 
strata, each differing in pH value precludes uniformity of soil reaction. In 
view of this fact, a practical classification of these lands requires a 
recognition of these varying conditions of acidity. A preliminary classification 
based on acidity, has been as followi(2)i 



-5- 



-p 

o 

E-l 



ON 



«5 

co 

CO 

a 

H 

o 



K 

1 

•H 
T3 

41 

1 

1 

d 

e 

i 

ft 

■p 

CO 

o 

CC 

o 



CM 






6> 



c 
« 
o 

© 

p 



4) 

c 

03 



4* 

c 
c 
(J 

c 
p 






3 



CO 



co 



o 



3 

O 












co 



co 
co 



co 
cm 

CO 



CD 
00 



ON 
CM 



CO 



co 

CM 



CM 
vO 
vO 

CO 



VO 



"I 



co 
vo 

CM 



ON 



3 

CO 



CO 
vO 



CM 



vo 



UN 
C*>- 



CM 







CO 

• 

co 


O 

• 

o 
o 


vr\ 

ro 

VO 


o 

CM 

00 


CO 


On 
CO 


• 
CO 


• 

ON 

CM 


CO 


vO 


H 




• 


# 

CO 
vO 



R 



« 

c 
u 

09 
P 



■ 



CM 
CM 



CO 



63 



•P 



<H 
O 

>fc s 

a «a 

C& CO 

si © 

*» r-i 

• m 

u ft 



■5 « 

H 03 O 

o 



a 



5 a 

h m a 

O ft,XJ 

vo *-» • +■ 

cv- > ■ o 

• n 

rH cd »jd 

ti XJCN*» 
O -P • *H 
■H VO> 
\0 CO I 
fi eo ©<**. 
8 03 • iH 
S^ ,JJ ^J- \A 



CM 



O 
VOON 

o o 

55 
4f* 



CO 



(0 U 
A o 
-p 

O 
09 • 

o 

X <M 

o 



o 

VO 



oo 

ON 



09 - CB 

^ o « 

•P <H 9 

>» o 3 

t-l *» 

• 00 

-P <H 2 

B °S 

•h a u 

H O 03 

O «H O 



3 

CM 
CM 



CM 



3 

00 

CM 



■9, 


ft u d 




*r 




O .3 


S3 




• -p 


•H 


3 > © 


• ft o3 


03 


•d 


■p 


cH>&. Tb 


09 09 t^ 
H S «H 


o 

EH 


03 O -H 


•h e3 o 
S oo c3 




O VAJ3 





VT\ 



S 

ON 



ON 

o 



o 

S3 

c 

I" 

ft 



03 

o 

«H 
O 

a 
o 

•H 
■P 

03 
CO 

-p 
a 

09 
S 

•H 

ti 

09 

& 

4» 

00 

09 
l« 

o 

Ph 

00 
09 

03 

■p 
CO 



03 

u 

09 

o 



-6- 



1. TOXIC BANKS: These are "banks having more than 75 percent of 
the surface area classified as toxic. Where the pH is less 
than 4.0 the soil is termed toxic, since a pH of less than 
3.8 is lethal to most common economically important plants. 
Approximately 1.0 percent of the total area stripped in 
Illinois was classified as toxic. 

2. MARGINAL BANKS: Fifty to 75 percent of the area of these hanks 
is toxic, the remainder "being acid, calcareous, or mixed. The 
area classified as marginal was approximately 1.3 percent. 

3. ACID BANKS: The reaction of more than 50 percent of the area 
of these banks was from 4.0 to 6.9. Most agricultural crops 
grow on soils having a pH of 5-^ or higher. A minimum pH for 
optimum growth of sweet clover and alfalfa is approximately 6.5. 

4. CALCAREOUS BANKS: More than 50 percent of the surface area of 
these "banks has a pH of 7.0 or more. Calcareous soils are 
suitable for the growth of a wide variety of plants. Approximately 
79 percent of the area stripped in Illinois as of 1946 falls in 
this classification. 

5. MIXED BANKS: These banks are so mixed that no acidity class is 
predominant. By definition less than 51 percent of the area is 
acid, less than 51 percent calcareous, and less than 50 percent 
toxic. Patches of toxic, acid, and calcaxsous are about equal 
in size, and of such proportions that the area cannot be placed 
in any of the foregoing classes. 

Texture of Soil Materials: 

The materials in the overburden overlying the coal include loess, 
gXaoial drift, sands, shales, slate, limestone, and sandstone rocks. The 
variation in texture, acidity, and fertility of the spoil surface depends upon 



-7- 

the different kinds of strata overturned. Textural classification of strip- 
mined lands, therefore cannot "be so exacting and detailed as for soils which 
are usually derived from relatively uniform parent material. However, 
certain "broad terfeural classes of spoils are recognized and grouped as follows: 

A. SANDS: Sandy spoils are composed principally of sand, sandstone, 
and sandy shales. Sandy spoils are coarse textured, drain 
rapidly, and have low water retaining capacity. They are 
usually low in fertility. 

B. LOAMS AND SILTY SHALES: These are spoils composed mainly of 
loamy material and silty shales. This group usually contains 
rather high amounts of loessial material. Aeration and drainage 
are good and the fertility level is generally high. 

C. CLAYS: Clay spoils are composed largely of clay, the remaining 
materials "being limestones and soft shales. The clay spoils 
usually have high fertility and water retaining capacity, hut 
"because of the high proportion of clay they are rather poorly 
drained and aerated. 

These two factors, namely acidity and texture, were combined to form 
the "basic spoil types. Thus as of 19^6, 5^.7 percent of the strip-mined lands 
in Illinois was classified as calcareous loams and silty shales, spoil type 
Jj^B. Similarly, 8,662 acres or 21.8 percent were calcareous clay or spoil type 
4~C. The present system is a method of adding organization in classifying a 
heterogeneous mass of soil material. Changes will "be recommended should 
future studies reveal the present system is inadequate. 

FORAGE CHOPS SPECIES ADAPTATION STUDIES: 

During the past three years, 1,964 plots have "been staked out and 
seed and fertilizer applied. The plots have "been observed regularly and 



-8- 



results recorded. Most of the plots are on spoil type *HB (calcareous 
loams and silty shales) and on spoil type ^C (calcareous clays), the two 
dominant spoil type classes in Illinois. Approximately ?0 different species 
and varieties have "been seeded under varying conditions. 

Species Adaptation on Newly Mined Spoils: 

Table 3 lists the forage and cultivated crop species that have 
been seeded on the banks. Excellent results have been obtained with the 
following legumes: Alfalfa, the sweet clovers, red clover, lespedeza, 
birdsfoot trefoil, yellow trefoil, and Kudzu. Varying success has been o"b- 
taiaed with Ladino, alsike clover, and the vetches. Figures 2-5 give a 
pictorial record of legumes and grasses growing on the banks. 

Orchard grass, the tall fescues, redtop, timothy, bromegrass, 
bluegrass, and ryegrass have been the grasses that are best adapted. Reed 
canary grass, western wheatgrass, side-oat grama, love grass, Canadian wild 
rye, tall meadow oatgrass, Rhodes grass, the native grasses such as big and 
little bluestem, Indian grass, and switch grass have been established with 
varying success. The native grasses are very slow to become established. 
The species that were seeded on the plots in the spring of 19^+8 first began 
to show well during the late summer of 19^9. 

In many instances alfalfa plants growing on the banks have been 
observed to be rather heavy producers of seed clusters. According to Piper(3) 
the factors affecting the production of seed are "thickness of stand, a 
favorable moisture supply and conditions favorable for the tripping of the 
flowers. Isolated plants produce most seeds. The beneficial effects seem 
partly due to the increased sunlight received. Abundant moisture lessens 
seed production, apparently because it stimulates the growth of new sprouts. 



-9- 



Tahle 3. — Forage Species to Be Seeded 



Qraasga 



Kentucky "bluegrass 
Canada "bluegrass 
Big l>luegrass 
Canby "bluegrass 
Redtop 

Timothy 

Reeds canary grass 

Orchard grass 

Bromegrass 

Mountain "brome 

Meadow fescue 
Alta fescue 
Che wings fescue 
Creeping fescue 
Ryegrass 

Bermuda grass 
Dallas grass 
Crested wheatgrass 
Slender wheatgrass 
Western wheatgrass 

Blue grama 
Side-oat grama 
Big "bluestem 
Little "bluestem 
Buffalo grass 

Indian grass 
Tall oatgrass 
Canadian wild rye 
Michael's grass 
Rhodes grass 

Switch grass 
Meadow foxtail 
Millets 
Sudan 
Sweet sudan 



Love grass 

"M* pasture mix 

Fields pasture mix 



Botanical Name 

Poa prat ens is 
Poa compressa 
Poa ampla 
Poa canbyi 
Agrostis al"ba 

Phlem pratense 
Phragmites communis 
Lactylis glomerata 
Bromus inermis leyss 
Bromus marginatus 

Festuca pratensis 

Festuca pratensis var. alta 

Festuca rubra 

Festuca rubra var. creeping 

Loliura perenne 

Cynodon dactylum 
Paspalum notatum 
Agropyron cristatum 
Agropyron tenerium 
Agropyron smithii 

Bouteloua gracilis 
Bouteloua curtipendula 
Andropogon furcatus 
Andropogon scoparius 
Buchlae dactyloides 

Sorghastrum nutans 
Arrhenatherum elatius 
llymus canadensis 

Chloris gay ana 

Panicum virgatum 
Alcopecuris eliator 
Setarla sp. 
Sorghum h^lapense 
(Cross) Sorghum halapense 
x S. vulgare 

Eragrostis currula 



Calamagrostis epigea 



-10- 



Common Maine 

Wheat 

Oats 

Rye 

Corn 

Soybeans 



Table 3. — (cont'd) - Forage Species to Be Seeded 

Cultivated Crops 

Botanical Name 

Triticum aestivum 
Avena sativa 
Secale cereale 
Zea mays 
Glycine max. 



Legumes 



Alfalfa 

Sweet clover - yellow 
Sweet clover - white 
Hubam clover 
Spanish sweet clover 

Evergreen sweet clover 
Lespedeza - common 
Lespedeza - Korean 
Lespedeza - Kobe 
Lespedeza - Sericea 

Mammoth clover 

Alsike clover 
Crimson clover 
Subterranean clover 
White Dutch clover 

Ladino clover 
Hop clover 
Alyce clover 
Austrian winter pea 
Birdsfoot trefoil 

Big broadleaf trefoil 

Tellow trefoil 

Kudzu 

Lupines 

Lappacea 

Red clover, Kenland 
Red clover, Cumberland 
Red clover, Midland 
Sanfoin 
Crown vetch 

Button clover 
Persian clover 
Wagner pea 
Singletary pea 
Hairy vetch 



Medicago sativa 
Melilotus officinalus 
Melilotus alba 
Melilotus annula 
Melilotus suaveolus 

Melilotus 
Lespedeza striata 
Lespedeza stipulacea 
Lespedeza striata var. 
Lespedeza sericea 

Trifolium pratense var. 

perenne. 
Trifolium hybridum 
Trifolium incarnatum 
Trifolium subterraneum 
Trifolium repens 

Trifolium repens var. latum 
Trifolium procumbens 
Trifolium alyce 
Pi sum sativa var. 
Lotus corniculatus 

Lotus uliginosus 
Medicago lupulina 
Pueraria chunbergiana 
Lupinus sp. 
Sfifolium lappaceaum 

Trifolium pratense var. 
Trifolium pratense var* 
Trifolium pratense var. 
Onobrychis vicioefolia 
Vicia sp. 

Medicago oebicularis 
Trifolium reseysinatum 
Lathyrue silvestris wagneri 



Vicia villosa 



( 



-11- 




Alta fescue plant growing on plots on the Delta Colleries 
property, Williamson county. 19^9. (Fig. 2) 



-12- 





Alsike, red clover, and "birdsfoot plants, (left to right) 
showing tope and roots, taken from plots on Morgan Coal 
Company, Fulton county. 19^9. (Fig* 3) 



-13- 




Excellent growth of a pasture mixture on the top of a strike-off ridge. Pulton county, 
W9. (Pig. *$ 



-1*4- 




View into plot located on the Delta Colleriee property in Williamson county showing 
several species (from left to right) alfalfa, "birdsfoot trefoil, lespedeza, and red 
clover. 1949. Uig. 5) 



-15- 

Too little moisture also seriously reduce* seed yields." In many areas 
application* of "boron has materially increased the setting of seed(l). 

The stand of alfalfa growing on the slopes generally is not as thick 
as on flat surfaces. The drainage on the slopes of the banks is good. Adequate 
moisture is present to the deep-rooted legumes at all times. Then too the 
mineral content of the soil material is favorable for good growth of legumes. 
Thus the factors essential for seed production are met in the strip-mined soils 
resulting in greater amount of seed being set than under normal Illinois 
climatic conditions. Seed was collected from several areas during the 19**8 
and 19**9 growing seasons for germination test. It was observed when threshing 
the seed that there were many brownish, immature seeds along with the well - 
developed seeds. Only well-developed seeds were used for the germination tests. 
The results obtained are presented in Table b. Many of the hard seeds will 
germinate. The well-developed seeds thus produced should result in natural 
reseeding. 

Ladino clover, a giant form of common white clover, has given good 
results in several instances. The forage is high in protein, minerals, and 
vitamins and is very palatable to livestock. As observed from the plots seeded, 
Ladino does best in the valleys and rather poorly on southerly and westerly 
exposed slopes. The reason for this unequal establishment lies in the fact that 
more moisture accumulates in the low spots, also the higher temperatures on 
the west and south slopes are less favorable for Ladino clover. Probably for 
best results Ladino should be hand seeded in the valleys. 

Kudzu, a viney, rapid growing, long-lived perennial plant that has 
been used in the southern part of the United States for pasture purposes has 
given good results. Acclimated root crowns from a midwestern source have 



-16- 



Tahle 4. — Results of Germination Tests of Alfalfa Seed^/ Collected From Plants 

Growing on Strip-Mined Lands in 1949 



Location where samples were collected 



County Germination 



Hard 
seed 



Dead 
seed 



4. United Electric Coal Companies 

Fidelity Mine 

5. Pyramid Coal Corporation 

12. United Electric Coal Companies 

Cuba Mine 

13. Truax-Traer Coal Company 

Eiatt Mine 

14. Fairview Colleries 

15. Midland Electric Coal Corporation 

Rapatee Mine 

19. Northern Illinois Coal Corporation 

Morris Mine 

20. Wilmington Coal and Mining Company 



Perry 

Perry 
Fulton 

Fulton 



perct. 


perct. 


perct. 


91 


7 


2 


71 


27 


2 


70 


22 


8 



61 



39 



Fulton 


73 


26 


1 


Knox 


63 


37 





Grundy 


46 


48 


6 


Will 


48 


50 


2 



§J The seed vras held at "below freezing temperatures for approximately 16 hours 
before germination tests were run. Under Illinois climatic conditions 
normally very little alfalfa seed is produced. Based on observation the 
alfalfa grov/ing on the banks produces more seed clusters than alfalfa 
growing on farm land. The germination percentages listed above compare 
favorably vdth germination results listed on seed tags. 



-17- 



proved very adaptable to southern Illinois. Winterkilling was severe in 
western Illinois. When good survival is obtained this specie will cover the 
"banks rather completely in four to five years. As pasturage Kudzu is re- 
cognized as having high feeding value. 

Species Seeded in Pre- established Vegetation ' 

Plots were also staked out on older "banks already covered or 
partially covered "by sweet clover, weeds, or other vegetation. The object was 
to obtain a more desirable mixture by the addition of other species to established 
sweet clover or to improve the mixture on banks covered mostly with weeds. 
Approximately 130 plots of this type were seeded in 19^ and 19^+9 with very 
little success. 

Seeding other legume species into a dense stand of sweet clover vat 
unsuccessful in their establishment. Reseeded grasses seemed to come in only 
on east or north exposure slopes. Sweet clover, alfalfa, orchard grass, 
redtop, and timothy were the species most easily established when seeded in to 
weedy areas. 

Fertility Treatment: 

The plot design used in this experiment is shown in Figure 6. The 
fertilizer applications were applied up and down the slopes at the rate of 
750 pounds of 8-8-8 mixed fertilizer and 100 pounde of trace mineral fertilizer 
materials per acre as shown. When limestone was nteded (one set of plots, 
Saline county), it was applied at the rate of 5 tons per acre in the form of 
hydrated lime. Throe locations were treated and seeded in the fall of 19^. 
while two location! were completed in the spring of 19^9. 

No response was noted as the result of the application of phosphorus, 
potassium, and trace minerals. Nitrogen did increase the growth of fall seeded 
grasses. It also increased weed growth tremendously. Fall applications of 
nitrogen on newly seeded areas appear to be impractical. The application of 



-18- 



- 30 



i «. 



i 

o 

r- 
I 











■ — 


— 




3 
5 


. 









— 










11 














1 












9 









— 


— 






4 

13 
7 

2 












— 






























— — 


6 








s. 


— 




8 


H. 










0. 


10 
F, 12 


D. 


A. 


c. 


B. 



o 

<n 



Fertilizer application 
750 lb. /A 



A 8-8-8 

B 8-8-8 plus trace elements 

C 8-0-0 plus trace elements 

D 8-0-0 

E 8-8-0 

F 8-0-8 

0-6-8 

H 0-0-0 



240 • - 
Forage species seeded 



Pounds Rate 
per per 
plot acre 



1. Kentucky blue grass 

2. Brome 

3. Redtop 

4. Timothy 

5. Orchard grass 

6. Alt a fescue 

7. Ryegrass 

8. Sweet clover 

9. Alfalfa 

10. Red clorer 

11. Ladino 

12. Lespedeza 

13. Birdsfoot trefoil 



1.10 
1.10 
1.00 

.85 
1.10 
1.10 
1.10 
1.10 
1.10 

.85 

.33 
1.40 

.45 



15 
15 
14 
12 

15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
12 

5 

20 
6 



The plot design used for the fertility treatment experiment. (Fig. 6) 



-19- 



nitrogen on old established spoil "bank pastures which have reverted principally 
to grasses may "be practical as a means of increasing productive capacity. This 
problem is "being investigated. 

Establishment of Mixtures: 

Better pastures usually result when a mixture of grasses and legumes 
is seeded than when a single specie is seeded. Based on plot results the 
most satisfactory stands of desired species hate been obtained by seeding the 
mixture in the spring of the year on newly mined areas. Fall seeding has not 
proved satisfactory. At this time it is recommended to seed approximately 
60 percent legumes and not more than 40 percent grasses in the mixture. 

Mixtures that have been successful and are recommended are: 



(1) 



(2) 



(3) 



U) 











Total 

per acre 




lfc. 




lfc. 


lfc. 


Alfalfa 
Leaped eza 
Sweet clover 
Ladino 


4 

3 

1 


Orchard grass 
Alta or K31 fescue 
Timothy 


3 
3 
2 


20 


Alfalfa 
Lespedeza 
Birdsfoot trefoil 
Orchard grass 


8 
k 






20 


Alfalfa 
Sweet clover 
Red clover 
Ladino 


k 
3 
3 

1 


Orchard grass 
Timothy 


4 
3 


18 


Alfalfa 
Ladino 


10 

1 


Bromegrass 
Orchard grass 


5 
3 


19 



Rate and Time of Seeding: 

The time of seeding and age of the banks are very important in 
obtaining a good pasture cover. Spring seeding on newly mined spoils has been 
most satisfactory. By seeding all the newly mined banks every year the growth 






-20- 



of undesirable weeds and trees nay "be reduced "because the vegetation seeded 
competes with the undesirable species. -Probably the best time of year to 
seed in Illinois is late February through March. Poor growth and survival 
haw resulted when the seeding was done as late as April 15. 

The rate of application of seed on the banks should be increased 
about 25 percent over that normally applied to farm land, A minimum of 
approximately 17 pounds of a mixture is recommended. 

U 8 e of Hulching Materials: 

Plots were seeded in the spring of 19**9 on the compact and plastic 
till areas in northern Illinois on which strips of straw and manure mulching 
were applied. Unless some strike-off work is done so that equipment can be 
used, mulching would be impractical. Results of the effects of the mulching 
material on the establishment of various species are incomplete at this time. 

Use of Cultivated Farm Crops: 

Cultivated crops were again seeded on areas that had been leveled. 
Corn and soybeans planted in May, 19^9, in Fulton county, failed. Wheat and 
rye seeded in the fall of 19^*8 in Knox county grew to maturity and yields were 
taken. The results obtained are listed in Table 5. The application of 
nitrogen only, results in very satisfactory stands of wheat and rye. There 
has been little or no increase in yield through the application of phosphorus 
and potassium fertilizers. Quality, as measured by test wieght, may hare been 
increased some. 

The yield of rye from a 7.5 acre level plot seeded by one of the 
companies was 115 bushels, averaging 15.3 bushels per acre. 

Horticultural Experimental Plots: 

During the 19^9 season several horticultural crops were planted on 
strip-mined lands to determine the growth, survival, and yield on these soils. 



-21- 



Ta"ble 5. — Wheat and Eye Yields on Leveled Area 
Midland Electric Coal Corporation, Knox County 



Treatment - elemental 

nitrogen 
I'all^/ SpringV 


Wheat TDlot 


3 


Rye TDlot 


3 


Yield per 


acre 


T 


est weight 


Yield per 


acre 


Teat weight 


Ifc. 




lfe. 


£&• 






tt/&. 


la. 




iVta. 






20 


13.9 






58.0 


6.9 




53.5 


20 






22.5 






57.0 


15.1 




53.5 


ko 






25.6 






58.0 


14.8 




54.5 


40 




20 


26.8 






58.0 


19.5 




54.0 


40 




40 


27.0 






58.5 


23.5 




55.0 


40 




60 


28.5 






58.5 


31.2 




53.0 


40 




80 


27.2 






57.0 


24.9 




54.5 


8-8-8fi/ 






25.3 






58.5 


23.8 




56.0 



Sj Fall application drilled with seed September 24, 1946. 

i/ Spring application top-dressed March 25, 1949. 

fi/ 75° pounds of 8-8-8 commercial fertilizer applied in the fall. 



-22- 

The following vegetable crops were seeded on a leveled and a strike-off area: 
radishes, beets, carrots, green beans, lima beans, peas, cabbage, cauliflower, 
tomatoes, watermelon, muskmelon, cucumbers, and sweet corn. Some produce of 
all the species was realized. Tomatoes, muskmelon, green beans, and cabbage 
grew best and gave good, edible produce. 

DETERMINATION OF FORAGE YIELDS AND QUALITY: 

Measurement of Forage Yields: 

On seeded areas that have become satisfactorily established, hay 
yields were obtained. This was done by cutting either two- or four-foot 
square areas of forage. The forage was dried, weighed, and converted to yields 
expressed in tons per acre. Table 6 gives the yield of several plots of legumes 
and mixtures. Alfalfa and birdsfoot trefoil gave the greatest yields during 
this season. All the legumes were from areas seeded in the spring of 19**6. 
The mixtures represented by Lot 1 and Lot 3, were originally seeded in 1938 
and 19^7, respectively. 

The differences in yields from undisturbed areas (A) , strike-off 
areas (B), or leveled areas (C) were difficult to determine because of the small 
number of areas other than undisturbed spoils. A thorough study comparing the 
yields from areas treated in the three ways should be made. 

Hay yield data will be helpful in determining the carrying capacity 
of spoil bank pastures. By comparing these yields with actual grazing 
conditions more information concerning carrying capacity will be obtained. 

Botanical Composition and Ground Cover: 

Better stands of desirable vegetation and more complete ground cover 
are usually obtained on north than on south slope exposures. Similarly 
botanical counts of forage indicate that vegetation becomes better established 
on strike-off tops than it does on the tops of the ridges. The point auadrat 



-23- 



TABLE 6. HAY YIELDS OF gORAgg PRODUCED ON SPOIL BASK PLOTS. 1949 



Forage tpecie 



Location 



Property- 



County 



Type of 
plote 2 ^ 



Yield per acre 



Alfalfa 
(3 cuttings) 



Midwest Radiant 
U.E. , Cuba Mine 
M.E. Rapatee 



Birdsfoot trefoil U.E. Fidelity 
(3 cuttings) Midwest Radiant 



Sweet clover 



Red clover 



Yellow trefoil 



Lespedeza 
Korean 



Early Korean 

Kobe 

Sericea 



Mixtures - on 
established 

istures - 
.3 cuttings) 



ff 



U.E. Cuba 
M.E. Rapatee 

Delta 

U.E. Fidelity 
U.E. Cuba 
M.E. Rapatee 

Midwest Radiant 
U.E. Cuba 
M.E. Rapatee 

Delta 

U.E. Fidelity 

U.E. Cuba 

Sahara 
Delta 

Truax-Traer 
U.E. Fidelity 
Pyramid 
Southwestern 
Midwest Radiant 
Midwest Radiant 
Midwest Radiant 
Midwest Radiant 

B. Somers (Lot l) 
U.E. Fidelity (Lot 3) 
Southwestern 



St. Clair 


B 


Fulton 


A 


Knox 


C 


Perry 


A 


St. Clair 


B 


Fulton 


A 


Knox 


C 


Williamson 


A 


Perry 


A 


Fulton 


A 


Knox 


C 


St. Clair 


B 


Fulton 


A 


Knox 


C 


Williamson 


A 


Perry 


A 


Fulton 


A 


Saline 


C 


Williamson 


A 


Jackson 


A 


Perry 


A 


Perry 


A 


Randolph 


A 


St. Clair 


B 


St. Clair 


B 


St. Clair 


B 


St. Clair 


B 


Fulton 


A 


Perry 


A 


Randolph 


A 



21m. 



lana 



7 190 


3.6 


7 ^59 


3.75 


8 223 


4.1 


6 037 


3.0 + 


7 015 


3.5 


7 327 


3.7 


7 268 


3.6 


.0 056 


5.0 


1 788 


.9 


5 460 


2.7 


2 35^ 


1.2 


4 408 


2.2 


3 048 


1.5 


5 128 


2.6 


2 496 


1.2 


1 872 


.9 


1 824 


.9 


3 117 


1.6 


3 938 


2.0 - 


3 795 


1.9 


3 571 


1.8 


4 252 


2.1 


3 956 


2.0 - 


4 722 


2.4 - 


5 784 


2.9 


3 636 


1.8 


3 408 . 


1.7 


2 120 


1.1 


2 911 


1.5 


5 399 


2.7 



a/ A - undisturbed spoil banks. B - strike-off tops. C - level or partially level. 



-ZUr 



was used to determine the percent that each specie contributed to the pasture 
sward and also the percent of the area that was hare. These readings were 
taken on an established pasture in the spring and again in the fall of 19^. 

In the spring the north slope was 91.7 percent covered with vegetation 
compared to 75 percent for the south slope. There were approximately 15 percent 
less weeds on the north than on the south exposed slopes. 

A similar comparison was made "between strike-off tops and the tope 
of undisturbed ridges. The strike-off tops were 96 percent covered compared 
to 89 percent covered for the undisturbed tops. Weeds on the undisturbed tops 
made up approximately 10 percent of the total vegetation compared to 2.5 percent 
for the strike-off tops. In general, vegetation on strike-off tops contained 
less weeds and covered the ground more completely than the ungraded tops. 

Comparing the results of 19^ and 19^9 studies it is evident that 
the grasses have contributed more to the percent of cover than the legumes 
during the 19^9 season. There is evidence also that the weed population is 
increasing as would be expected. 

Chemical Composition of Forage Species? 

This phase of the project, comparing the chemical composition of 
spoil bank vegetation with that of surrounding Arm land, has been looked forward 
to with a great deal of interest. In 19**8 samples of forage were collected from 
the various spoil types in different locations at various times of the year and 
the composition determined by chemical analysis. The averages are presented in 
Table 7. Table 8 (**), which gives the chemical composition of forage crops 
grown on Illinois farms over a period of years, is presented so that the 
composition of the forage from the strip-mined lands can be compared with the 
composition of forage grown on Illinois farm land. 

In studying the chemical composition of plants, it is well to keep 
in mind the influencing factors that may cause variations. Composition may 



-25- 



TABLE 7. C 


IHEMICAL COK 


[POSITION 0] 


? i'ORASE CRC 


PS GE 


.OWN 








ON STRIP-MINED 


LAND IN 1948 






Crop 


Number of 
















samples 


N 


Protein 


P 


K 


Ca 


Mg 






pet. 


pet. pet. 


pet. 


pet. 


pet. 


Legumes '> 
















Alfalfa 


2? 


2.95 


18.4 


20 


1.48 


1.80 


.46 


Red clover 


26 


2.61 


16.3 


18 


1.47 


1.73 


.51 


Alsike 


24 


2.88 


18.0 


24 


1.97 


1.55 


.51 


Ladino 


13 


2.77 


17.3 


22 


1.32 


1.55 


.55 


Birdsfoot trefoil 


15 


2.70 


16.9 


19 


1.73 


1.82 


.69 


Sweet clover 


13 


3.41 


21.3 


23 


1.29 


1.74 


.44 


May-June 
















Sweet clover 


11 


3.03 


18.9 


20 


1.35 


1.21 


.47 


September-October 
















Lespedeza, Korean 


24 


2.02 


12.5 


22 


1.15 


1.13 


.33 


Mammoth red clover 


6 


3.05 


19.1 


19 


2.10 


1.54 


.49 


White clover 


8 


3.10 


19.2 


24 


.97 


1.75 


.55 


Hubam 


7 


2.79 


17.5 


21 


.83 


1.65 


.58 


Yellow trefoil 


8 


2.80 


17.7 


21 


1.70 


2.05 


.47 


Lespedeza, Kobe 


6 


1.76 


11.0 


18 


1.20 


1.07 


.33 


Lespedeza, Sericea 


3 


2.17 


13.6 


18 


. * . • 


1.09 


.33 


Crimson clover 


2 


2.70 


16.9 


.16 


1.52 


2.10 


.36 


Button clover 


1 


2.10 


13.1 


,22 


1.05 


1.24 


.56 


Lappacea clover 


1 


1.40 


8.8 


,18 


.85 


1.82 


.60 


Austrian winter pea 


1 


3.80 


23.8 


.25 


2.12 


1.30 


.30 


Grasses: 
















Bromegrass 


6 


2.05 


12.8 


.29 


2.30 


.51 


.25 


Kentucky bluegrass 


6 


1.44 


9.0 


.23 


1.56 


.37 


.24 


Orchard grass 


9 


1.86 


11.6 


.27 


2.44 


.54 


.36 


Timothy 


6 


1.79 


11.4 


.28 


2.27 


.38 


.22 


Redtop 


7 


1.44 


9.0 


.17 


1.64 


.45 


.30 


Ryegrass 


6 


1.90 


11.7 


. . » 


• • • • 


.55 


.27 


Tall fescues 


6 


1.90 


11.9 


.28 


• • • ♦ 


.60 


.35 


Rhodes grass 


5 


1.70 


10.4 


,22 


• • • • 


.42 


.22 


Canadian wild rye 


4 


1.80 


11.1 


,28 


• • • • 


.36 


.23 


Western wheatgrass 


2 


1.70 


10.4 


> . • 


• • • • 


.56 


.27 


Love grass 


2 


1.35 


8.4 


. • • 


• • • • 


.25 


.12 


Reed canary grass 


1 


1.90 


11.9 


.31 


• • • • 


1.00 


.40 


Tall oatgrass 


1 


1.30 


8.1 


. . • 


• • • • 


.60 


.40 



-26- 

TABLE 8. HAY AMD FORA&E CROPS ; Chemical Composition 

Orer a Period of Years. 5 ' 



Crop 



lumber of 

samplssi/ N Protein P 



K 



Lad i no 



Birdsfoot trefoil 






2.02 


12.5 


.15 





3.56 


22.2 


.31 


6 


2.75 


17.2 


.19 



Ca 



1.50 1.22 



Mg 



Legumes: 




pet. 


pet. 


pet, 


pet, 


pet., 


ficJL^ 


Alfalfa 


50 


2.75 


17.2 


.18 


1.25 


1.75 


.49 


Red elerer 


50 


2.37 


14.8 


.16 


1.30 


1.47 


.46 


Alsike 


20 


2.35 


14. 7 


.21 


1.12 


1.32 


.53 


Sweet cloTer 

October-Novemoer 


17 


2.07 


12.9 


.11 


.80 


1.35 


.62 


Sweet clover 
April-May 


30 


3.45 


21.6 


.30 


1.60 


1.64 


.57 


Lespedeza 


50 


2.02 


12.5 


.15 


.95 


.85 


.29 



.31 



Grasses: 
















Kentucky blue grass 


50 


1.47 


9.2 


.19 


1.64 


.31 


.20 


Timothy 


50 


.98 


6.1 


.15 


1.57 


.28 


.18 


Redtop 


50 


1.06 


6.6 


.17 


1.59 


.41 


.22 


Orchard grass 


30 


.97 


6.0 


.18 


1.90 


.27 


.21 


Bromegrass 


50 


1.49 


9.3 


.17 


2.21 


.40 


.15 



sj Snider, H. J. "Chemical Composition of Hay and Forage Crops" Illinois 
Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin 518. 19*»6. 

V Samples were taken from experiment fields and farms in various parts of 
Illinois. 



-27- 



vary with the species, stage of growth, climatic conditions, productivity and 
mineral content of the soil. Internal or external injuries by insects, diseases, 
rodents, animals, or weather may also affect the composition of vegetation. 

Legumes are relatively high in protein and minerals, and for this 
reason are valuable as a feed. Grasses are lower in protein and certain minerals 
hut are high in others, thus supplying the balance necessary for a good ration. 

The influence of the soil material of the strip-mined lands on the 
chemical composition and feeding value of the forage is revealed by the results 
of tests made on over 1,000 soil samples. These tests show that Illinois spoil 
bank soil material is high in phosphorus, potassium, and calcium. This high 
content of minerals is probably a more logical explanation for the high quality, 
palatability, and feeding value of the forage grown on the banks than the often 
suggested possibilities of the rather glamorous trace element theory. 

The following auotation supports this thought (5): "Nitrogen, 
phosphorus, potassium, and calcium are quality elements in feed crops. Classed 
among the soft elements, they are also chemically active. When soils contain 
sufficient quantities of the chemically active elements in available form, 
the crops take them up readily in preference to other less desirable elements 
which are not so chemically active. A large supply of soft elements tends to 
improve quality and palatability." 

The one element limiting high quality forage production on the banks 
in Illinois, is nitrogen. However, it can be economically supplied through 
the use of nodulated legumes or possibly the use of commercial nitrogen. 

Animal Gains as a Method of Measuring Tield and Quality: 

The quality of forage and the value of strip-mined land for agricultural 
production may be determined by measuring animal gains through livestock grazing 

experiments. This is the second year during which two lots of steers have 

i 
grazed on strip-mined pastures, and the gains compared with gains made by two 



-28- 

lots that grazed on undisturbed land. The grazing tests were carried out on 
lands owned by Mr. Byron Somers in Fulton county and on lands owned by the 
United Electric Coal Companies and the Meadowlark Farms, Inc. in Perry county. 

Twenty yearling steers of good grade were used in each of the two 
counties. Ten steers were grazed on spoil bank lands, while the same number 
were run on ordinary pasture as a check or control group. The control pasture 
used in Fulton county was an 80-acre bluegrass pasture within a mile of the area 
grazed by the test group. The control pastures used in Perry county were on 
improved lands. From April 22 to June 30 the steers grazed on a pasture mixture 
of timothy, redtop, and Ladino clover. Sudan grass furnished the pasturage 
from July 1 to July 26, after which the steers were turned onto lespedeza 
pastures. These pastures were located approximately 20 miles from the test 
group. 

The spoils pasture in Fulton county on which the test was made was 
the same pasture that was used in 19^8. The banks are well covered with good 
pasture forage. Bluegrass, bromegrass, wild grasses, sweet clover, and alsike 
clover made up approximately 85 percent of the pasturage species. 

The Perry county pasture area is not as well established, having been 
first seeded in the spring of 1W. Sweet clover, lespedeza, bluegrass, and 
wild grasses made up most of the forage during the 19^9 pasture season. 



-29- 

The results obtained, in terms of animal gains, during the 178-day 
pasture season were: 

Av. wt. . Av. wt. . Ay. total Av. daily 

April 20 +1 Oct. 15 j* gain V gain 17 

lfc. Ifc. li. JJfe. 
JOLTON COUNTY TEST 

Lot 1, test steers, spoils^ 707 881 174 .98 

Lot 2, control steers, bluegrass 704 899 195 1.M 

PERRY COUNTY TEST 

Lot 3, test steers, spoils^ 681 831 150 .8** 

Lot 4, control steers, improved pasture 712 909 197 1»11 

i/ Weights at Urbana, April 20, before the cattle were trucked to their respective 
pastures and at Urbana on October 15, the day following their return. 

2j Average initial and final weights of 9 steers. 

2j Average initial and final weights of 7 steers. 

Table 9 gives the individual weights of each steer before and after 
the pasture season and shows the difference in individual gains. For the 40 
steers the total gain made while on pasture varied from a low of 130 pounds to 
a high of 250 pounds per head. Figure 7 shows steers utilizing spoil bank 
pastures. 

For the second straight year the animal gains made on the spoil bank 
pastures were nearly as good as those made on the bluegrass and improved grass- 
legume pastures. This is gratifying since it definitely shows that the seemingly 
"waste lands" can be returned to profitable agricultural production. 

ECONOMIC INTERPRETATIONS: 

Methods, Costs, and Feasibility of Forage Species Establishment: 
Several methods are used to seed the strip-mined lands in Illinois. 
The earliest method used was to seed the forage species by hand seeders. This 
method is still used. The total labor charge for hand seeding an 80-acre area 
in 1948 was $1.95 per acre. It required 184 man-hours to seed the 80 acres. 



-30- 

TABLE 9. DATA SITING INDIVIDUAL WEIGHTS OF 

STEERS PASTURED IN 1949 



Tattoo 


Weight 


Weight 


Gain on 


Tattoo 


Weight 


Weight 


Gain on 




Apr. 20 


Oct. 15 


pasture 




Apr. 20 


Oct. 15 


pasture 








Fulton 


County 










it.. 


Ifc* 


Ik. 




Uu. 


Uu 


11* 


201 


710 


860 


150 


202 


750 


990 


240 


205 


660 


850 


190 


206 


660 


880 


220 


209 


720 


900 


• 180 


210 


750 


910 


160 


213 


680 


870 


190 


214 


690 


940 


250 


217 


710 


870 


160 


218 


760 


970 


210 


221 


770 


940 


170 


222 


690 


870 


180 


225 , 


710 . 


940 


?30 


226 


660 


840 


180 


?29&/ 


7003/ 


910*/ 


1905/ 


230 


710 


940 


230 


233 


710 


860 


150 


234 


640 


780 


140 


237 


690 


840 


150 


238 


730 


870 


140 


Averages 


707 


881 


174 


Ay er ages 


704 


899 


195 



Perry County 
Lot 3 — Spoil "bank pasture* Lot 4 ~- Iaproved grass-leguae pasture 



203 
207 
211 

215 
219 , 
223^ 

231*/ 
235fc/ 
239 



690 

680 

630 

770 

650 . 

710 s / 

690 v/ 
76W 

690V 

660 



At er ages 681 



860 

820 

760 

940 

760 . 

030&/ 

91oV 
...V 
830 

831 



170 
140 
130 
170 

320 s / 

l60 V 
150V 

170 
150 



204 


700 


880 


180 


208 


750 


890 


140 


212 


720 


960 


240 


216 


710 


920 


210 


220 


770 


930 


160 


224 


670 


850 


180 


228 


670 


890 


220 


232 


740 


960 


220 


236 


710 


920 


210 


240 


680 


890 


210 



Averages 712 



909 



197 



a/ Fed corn during part of pasture season. Not included in average. 

i/ Part of pasture season not on the spoils pasture. Not included in average. 



-31- 







§ 
o 

o 

d 
o 

— 

2 



o 

CO 



36 



4) 

1- 






c 

A 
o 

■H 

a 

o 
e 

& 
*> 

CD 



■a 



o 
ft 



c 



as 
u 

"S 

o 

CO 






-32- 

They were paid at the rate of 85 cents per hour. 

Since 19^5 the airplane has "been used rather extensively to seed 
strip-mined areas. The average fee charged has "been "between 50 to 95 cents 
per acre. In 1946, 1»500 acres were seeded in 26 hours. The helicopter was 
first used in 1948 to seed the spoil banks. The rate charged for helicopter 
service has been 6 cents per pound. Air seeding rates quoted do not include 
labor costs that are required to inoculate and mix the seed, and load it into 
the plane. In some cases the pilot is guided by men with flags. These costs 
must be added to the total costs. 

In the spring of 1949 an area was seeded with a power seeder mounted 
on a farm tractor. During the summer of 1948 the tops of all ridges had been 
knocked off to a width of 12 to 16 feet. Approximately 250 hours of man labor 
were required to seed 600 acres of these spoils. Of this total, it required 
110 tractor and tractor-man hours, and 66 hours of supervisory time. The 
remaining labor was used to get the seed ready to be sown. On this job 
approximately 2.4 acres were seeded per man hour. Operating costs of tractor 
and seeder must be added to the total costs. 

In observing and checking the results of the various methods used, it 
seems that the most satisfactory stands have been received by hand seeding. 
"Stripping" or missing of areas has been the comon fault of air seeding. 
Reseeding is then necessary. Even though flagmen are often stationed to guide 
the plane many pilots evidently do not follow them. In some cases the width 
of seed spread may not be as wide as had been estimated. The helicopter used 
in 1949 estimated covering a strip 60-feet each trip. Actually a strip of 
45-50 feet was covered adequately. Where mixtures of light and heavy weight 
seeds are seeded by the air method there is a tendency for the lighter weight seeds 
to be carried to one side. This is more pronounced on windy days (see Figure 6)* 
Where the tractor mounted seeder was used the valley and lower end of long slopes 



-33- 




Eesults of air seeding of a hromegrass-alfalfa mixture with the lighter weight 
"bromegrass seeds having drifted to the left side. 19^9. (Fig. 8) 






-34- 

were not covered adequately. Where the slopes are long and the ridges far 
apart the complete ridge is not covered, "because the seed cannot he thrown 
far enough hy the seeder. Natural seeding will undoubtedly cover the valleys 
in time. Where seedling counts were taken the tops had an average of 19 plants 
per square foot compared to 8 plants per square foot on the sides. 

Accessibility After Establishment and Financial Beturns: 

In developing a mined area for pasture, accessibility throughout the 
area is of prime importance. Those who have had experience in managing livestock 
on strip-mine pastures are in accord with the recommendation and need for 
adequate roadways. The term adequate is extremely relative. Usually too few 
roadways are made rather than too many. 

Limited information indicates that the cost of knocking off the tops 
of all ridges has varied from approximately $5 per acre for a 12 to 16 foot 
width to $30 per acre for an approximate 30 foot width. Pasture establishment 
is more easily accomplished when the tops of all ridges are graded. More study 
and comparisons regarding costs and advantages gained must be made to determine 
the facts on this phase of the project. 

Advantages of striking off all ridges are: (l) access roadways can 
be chosen from the highest and best located ridges and maintained as roadways, 
(2) all the banks are more easily accessible making management practices 
easier, especially giving better control of livestock, (3) the area can be 
seeded more easily by hand or power seeders; these methods of seeding have 
been most satisfactory from the standpoint of stand and ground cover obtained, 
(4) preliminary botanical counts of forage indicate that vegetation becomes 
better established on strike-off tops than it does on the tops of the ridges, 
and (5) vegetation on the strike-off tops contained less weeds than the un- 
graded tops. 






-35- 

Fencing is a major expenditure required "before the lands can "be 
adequately used for pasture. The outside fence should "be woven wire. Three 
s,trands of four-point barbwire are adequate for division and internal field 
fences where cattle are to "be used. 

The use of a Multiflora rose fence is "being studied. If the rose 
will make satisfactory growth and survival, it will "be practical to use the 
rose for extensive fence "building on strip-mined lands. On farm land in 
central Illinois, potentially effective "barriers to livestock have "been pro- 
duced after the fourth growing season following installation (6).. A comparison 
of average costs per year of woven wire fence and a living Multiflora rose fence 
is given in Table 10. 

The factor that will determine the extent of development and future 
use of mined areas is the financial returnsrealized from the use of strip-mined 
pasture lands. Detailed costs (expenses and receipts) of developed pastures 
are not available. According to information supplied by the Illinois Coal 
Strippers Association the net income from a 600-acre unit averaged $7 per acre 
annually from 1939 to 19*6. In 19^ the net income was approximately $9.70 
per acre. 

Financial returns on these pastures are dependent on the gains made 
by and price of livestock. Some physical factors or standards are available 
for estimating probable returns. The average daily gains made by project steers 
during the 19^+8 and 19^9 pasture seasons have been just over one pound per head. 
The length of the pasture season the last two years averaged approximately 175 
days. Estimates of the carrying capacity of strip-land pastures have varied 
between 2 to b acres per animal unit. Assuming 3 acres per animal unit, one 
pound gain per day, and a 180-day pasture season, one acre of strip-land pasture 
will produce 60 pounds of animal gains. If by good management the carrying 
capacity can be increased to 1 1/2 to 2 acres per animal unit, and the daily gains 



-36- 



TABLl 10* COMPARISON OF AVERAGE COST PER I3SAR 0? WOVEN 
WIRE FENCE AND MULTI FLORA EOSE LIVING FENCB&/ 



Standard woven wire fence 



Multlflera rose living fence 



Cost of Establishment 



320 Hods - woven wire (No. 39- 

9, 9 f 11) 
640 Rods ~ barbwire, 4 point 

16 Brace posts 8'10 M at $1.50 
424 Line posts 7* , 3 1/2" tops 
-12 • apart at 70 cents 
24 Pounds of staples at 9 cents 
Man labor and truck at 
75 cents per nan 
1/2 Acre of land at $150/A 

Total for Establishment 



$256.00 3520 



38.00 


60 


24.00 


1 


296.80 






500 


2.16 




96.00 


12 




1 1/4 


75.00 





1-0 rose seedlings 15" $102.08 

apart at $29/M 
Hours labor at 75 cents 45.00 
Acre site preparation - 25.00 

plowing, harrowing 
Fill in stock - replant- 14.50 

ing - 1st year at $29/M 
Hours labor at 75 cents 9.00 
Acres of land at $150/ A 187.50 



$787.96 Total for Establishment 



$383.08 



Cost of Maintenance 



Total maintenance and replacement $ 42.77 Yearly depreciation (longevity $ 15.32 
cost (6$ of above) calculated at 25 years) 



Interest on Investment 



Annual interest on capital in- 
vestment (3^ simple interest) 



$ 23.63 Annual interest on capital in- $ 11.49 
vestment (3$ simple interest) 



Annual Cost 



Total maintenance and interest $ 66.40 Total maintenance and interest $ 26.81 
on investment on investment 



a/ Wand ell, W. N. "Agricultural and Wildlife Values of Habitat I 



mprovement 
ansae t ions of the 



-37- 

remain at one pound per day, from 90 to 120 pounds of animal gains may "be 
produced per acre. Current prices can then be used to compute probable re- 
turns. 

More information is needed on the carrying capacity of strip-mined 
pastures and the average daily gains that can be expected by various grades 
of cattle for a more thorough understanding of potential returns. 

By following a planned, long-range program the costs and problems 
of establishing a profitable farm unit or organization, the nucleus of which 
is the strip-mine land, can be greatly reduced. To accomplish this two things 
need to be done*, (l) the lands that do not contain mineable coal, and which 
make up a part of every mine property, must be improved and maintained as soon 
as control is acquired, and (2) the mined land must be developed progressively 
each year and utilized as soon as it is ready to produce. The most concentrated 
use of these lands will be made in this way, — by incorporating the spoil banks 
with surrounding farm land into a well organized farm unit. 

DISSEMINATION OF INFORMATION: 

A tour through sections of the strip-mined lands in southern Illinois 
by a small group of members attending the summer meeting of the American Society 
of Agronomy at the University of Illinois, was conducted on June 16, 19^9. 

Those attending were: 

D. E. Alexander, Graduate Student, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 

L. F. Bauman, Illinois Agricultural Experiment Station, Urbana, Illinois 

H. P. Boles, Missouri Pacific Railroad, St. Louis, Missouri 

R. Jugenheimer, Illinois Agricultural Experiment Station, Urbana, Illinois 

J. K. Lindsey, Spencer Chemical Company, Monticello, Illinois 

R. Ma, Graduate Student, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 

R. Metzger, Graduate Student, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 

H. E. Myers, Head, Department of Agronomy, Kansas State College, Manhattan, Kansas 

D. Russell, Iowa State College, Ames, Iowa 

D. VanAken, Spencer Chemical Company, Wichita, Kansas 

L. S. Weber, Illinois Coal Strippers Association, Springfield, Illinois 



-38- 



A paper, Agronomic Research on the Strip Banks in Illinois, was 
read at the 19^9 convention of the National Coal Association which was held 
October 5-7 in Hew York City, New York. The paper was in the nature of a 
progress report on the findings of research conducted by this project. 

A "brief report was given at the Twenty-First Cattle Feeder ! s 
meeting of the results of the 19**9 pasture grazing experiment. This was the 
second year during which two lots of steers grazed on strip-mined pastures, 
and the gains compared with gains made "by two lots that grazed on undisturbed 
land. 

FUTURE PLANS 

Many of the phases of the project that are now in progress will be 
continued and expanded. These will include seedings of species that have given 
indication of value and require further study, expansion of spoil type studies, 
forage yield measurements, animal gains, analysis for chemical composition, etc. 

In addition more study will be given to the toxic acid condition 
prevalent in certain areas and the location of material in the highwall that 
is the source of the sulphur. Infiltration studies have been initiated on the 
major spoil types that have been treated in different ways. This study is to 
measure the infiltration on undisturbed spoil banks, strike-off tops, and 
leveled areas, both bare of vegetation and well vegetated to determine the 
effect of compaction. 

A study of the bacteriological life of the material of the banks is 
being made. This is to note the difference in the microbiological life of the 
toxic acid spots compared to that in an area where the vegetation is growing 
satisfactorily. 

More information of an economic nature will be gathered to determine 
the feasibility and possibilities of using the stripped land along with un- 
disturbed place land. 



-39- 
Bihliography 

1. Hunger signs in crops. A symposium. The American Society of Agronomy 

and the National Fertilizer Association, Washington, D. C. 1949. 

2. Limstrom, G. A. Extent, character and forestation possibilities of 

land stripped for coal in the central states. Central States Forest 
Experiment Station Technical Paper 109. 1946. 

3. Piper, C. 7. Forage plants and their culture. The MacMillan Company, 

Nev York. 1949. 

4. Snider, H. J. Chemical composition of hay and forage crops. Illinois 

Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin 518. 1946. 

5. . Soil treatment adds quality to crops. Illinois Agricultural 

Experiment Station Ag. 1387. 1948. 

6. Wandell, ¥. N. Agricultural and vildlife values of hahitat improvement 

plantings on the Illinois "black prairie. Transactions of the Thirteenth 
North American Wildlife Conference. Wildlife Management Institute, 
Washington, D. C. 1948. 



AFO:lap 
2-14-50 



> 









^ 



T 



%%z? lSs , 



THE POTENTIALITIES OF REVSGETaTING AND UTILIZING 



AGRONOMIC SPECIES ON STRIP MINED AREAS 



IN ILLINOIS 



A PROGRESS REPORT 



COVERING THE FOURTH YEAR OF WORK ON A COOPERATIVE INVESTIGATION 

CONDUCTED BI 
UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS , AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION 

AND 
ILLINOIS COAL STRIPPERS ASSOCIATION 



NOTE . 

The agreement covering this investigation provides 
that:- "No account of a cooperative research project shall be 
published by the sponsor or by any other agency, except upon 
approval of the division of the University, or head of the de- 
partment in which the work is being done." 

Permission for the reproduction of this report has 
been granted with the understanding that it is to be released 
for the confidential information of members of Illinois Coal 
Strippers Association only, and not to be quoted or released 
for publication. 



THE LIBRARY OF THE 

SEP 2 4 1951 

UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS 






Telephone CEntral 6-7044 






WILLIAM H. COOKE 
PRESIDENT 

CARL T. HAYDEN 

VICE PRESIDENT 



ILLINOIS COAL STRIPPERS ASSOCIATION 



307 NORTH MICHIGAN AVENUE 
CHICAGO 1, ILLINOIS 



A. J. CHRISTIANSEN 

SECRETARY-TREASURER 



FOREWORD 



To Members of Illinois Coal Stripoers Association 



Gentlemen: 

On February 1, 19U7, Illinois Coal Strippers Associ- 
ation entered into an agreement with the Agricultural Experiment 
Station, University of Illinois, covering a project of cooperative 
research into the possibilities of revegetating and utilizing 
grasses and legumes on strip mined areas for stock range and other 
purposes. 

This project estimated to require five years of research 
in order to arrive at sound conclusions, is now entering upon its 
fifth year. A progress report covering the first year of opera- 
tion issued on March 19, 19U8 dealt principally with the proposed 
scope and plan of attack on the problem; a survey of spoil bank 
soils found throughout the state, and preliminary reports on a 
number of seeding projects. The second report issued on March l£, 
19U9* and the third report issued on March 6, 19^0, presented fur- 
ther information on spoil bank soil materials, and comparisons 
of such materials xd.th surface soils found on adjoining landj the 
adaptation of various forage species to spoil bank soils; the re- 
sults of preliminary studies of comparative gains made by animals 
pastured on spoil banks with those pastured on undisturbed blue 
grass and highly improved grass-legume pasture and the utilization 
of stripped land for pasture. 



The report here presented covers the fourth year of opera- 



tion. 



The studies being made during 1951 will complete the pro- 
gram under the agreement and a final report will be issued next 
year. 



March 1, 19$1 






AGRONOMY PROJECT 



NUMBER: 
TITLE: 

OBJECT: 



LEADERS: 



1003 - Fourth Annual Report. 

Agronomic Land Use Research, on the Mined Areas 
of the Stripped Coal Lands of Illinois, 

The objectives of the project are to investi- 
gate the potentialities of revegetating 
and utilizing agronomic species on the strip- 
mined areas in Illinois. 

A* L. Lang, R. F. Fuelleman, J. H. Spaeth, and 

R. R. Snapp. 



Advisory Committee: - 

Dean H. P. Rusk 

W. L. Burlison 

F. C. Bauer 

J. C. Hackleman 

J* N. Spaeth 

A* J. Christiansen 

Louis S. Weber 

Agronomist - Alt en F. Grandt. 



AGRONOMIC LAND USE RESEARCH OH THE MIKED AREAS 
OF OHE STRIPPED COAL LANDS OP ILLINOIS 
by Alten F. Grandt^' 

The fourth annual report of progress on Agronomy Project 1003, 
covering the lnvesti gat ions of the potentialities of revegetating and utili- 
zing agronomic species on strip-mined areas in Illinois is herewith presented* 
This is a cooperative research project of the University of Illinois Agri- 
cultural Experiment Station and the Illinois Coal Strippers Association* &e 
report is an account of progress being made and thus necessarily reviews much 
of what was stated in previous reports* 

The Illinois Coal Strippers Association reports that 46,703 acres 
of land have been mined by the strip-mining method in Illinois as of January 1, 
1950* The acreage mined during 195° has not been compiled at this time but 
an estimate of 2,5°° acres would bring the total acreage strip mined as of 
December 31, 1950* to approximately 49,200 acres. Of this acreage 11,246 acres 
have been planted to trees and there has been a natural encroachment of forest 
species on 2,500 acres* Approximately 100 acres have been planted to orchard 
species* Lakes, recreational areas, and state parks utilize approximately 
4,000 acres* A greater proportion, approximately 15»600 acres have been seeded 
for livestock range or pasture use. Thus approximately 15*754 acres or 32 
percent of the total land mined in the state has had no treatment or use* This 
is considered totally unimproved land* 

Approximately 40 acres in widely scattered areas have been used for 
experimental plots in this project* Figure 1 shows the general areas where 



1/ Special Research First Assistant, Soil Experiment Fields and Crop Production, 
Department of Agronomy, University of Illinois, Agricultural Experiment 
Station, Urbana* 

The author acknowledges with thanks the assistance, advice, and encouragement 
received from L* S* Weber, Land Use Engineer, Illinois Coal Strippers 
Association, and H* J* Snider, Assistant Professor of Soil Fertility, 
Illinois Agricultural Experiment Station, in conducting these investigations* 



-2- 



AGRONOMY DEPARTMENT, UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS, URBANA 



Ik 

15 



al Compinies 

$ahara 
elta 
•T (IlkTlll 

US. (Fidelity 

•amid 
Southwestern 
tidweet Badlai 
dnsr — 



ittle Sister 
Morgan 

•U.E, ftickheejpi 
12-U.E. Cn"ba 
13-T-T (llatt #2] 

-Fairriev 

-M.S. (Bapatee] 
Id-Little John 
I7 -M.E. (SUeffleid) 



lq-Morri s-Nor thern 

ILLINOIS 



3CAl£- STATUTE MILtS 

e » to »o » n 



19 -Northern 

20 -Wilmington 

21 -Northern 

22-Ayrshirs 
23 l-Sealnole 




«r 



M379 



Location of Experimental Plots on Strip-Mined Coal Lands of Illinois 

(n«. i) 



-3- 

these plots have been established. 
SOIL STUDIES: 

Soil Analysis of Strip-Nine Soil Material: 

■s 

As of December 31, 1950* 1,3 2 ^ soil samples have been collected from 
the experimental plot areas and all have been tested by the University of 
Illinois soil testing laboratory* In addition numerous field tests have been 
taken. Table 1 shows the average amounts of plant nutrients found in the 
soil material* The over-all average of these tests show the pH to be 6*96, 
the available phosphorus to be 130 pounds, and the available potassium to be 
172 pounds per acre* Of 684 samples reported on in the first animal report 
the averages were found to be as follows: pH - 6*8; available phosphorus - 
122 pounds; and available potassium - 166 pounds* Several hundred additional 
tests did not markedly change the over-all averages reported that first year* 

In addition to the testing done on the experimental plot areas 
several areas were sampled on a more extensive basis* The strip-mined soil 
material of two townships in Knox county was tested* The results of testing 
366 soil samples gave an average pH of 7*4, 153 pounds of available phosphorus 
and 177 pounds of available potassium* These averages are almost identical 
with the averages reported in Table 1 for western Illinois* 

Another block of strip-mined land in southern Illinois was also 
more extensively studied* The following results in terms of averages were 
found: the average pH was 6*8, the available phosphorus was 119 pounds, and 
the available potassium was 152 pounds* These averages are very similar to 
the average of the 519 samples tested in southern Illinois* 

Thus, based on soil reaction or pH and available nutrient content 
the strip-mined lands in Illinois can be broadly classified as being potential- 
ly excellent for the production of forage crops* However, when contemplating 



-4~ 



Table 1.— Soil Analysis of Spoil Bank Material 



Plot locations 



County 



Number of 
samples 



Acidity 
average 



Phosphorus Potassium 



average 



averag e 



Note 



Southern Illinois 






Sahara 


Saline 


5^ 


Delta 


Williamson 


65 


T~T Elkville 


Jackson 


35 


TJ. E. Fidelity 


Perry 


81 


Pyramid 


Perry 


65 


Southwestern 


Randolph 


34 


Seminole 


Sto Clair 


10 


Midwest Radiant 


St. Clair 


175 


Subtotal and averages 


519 


Western Illinois 






Solar 


Schuyler 


12 


Morgan 


Fulton 


10 


Little Sister 


Fulton 


26 


TJ. F. Buckheart 


Fulton 


48 


TJ. E. Cuba 


Fulton 


32 


T-T Fiatt 


Fulton 


93 


Fairview 


Fulton 


5^ 


M. E. Rapatee 


Ful ton-Knox 


120 


Little John 


Knox 


87 


M. E. Atkinson 


Henry 


38 



pH- 

6.3 
6,2 
6.6 

7.3 
7.3 
7.6 

7.1 

6,6 



lb, 



90 

92 
108 
155 
93 
82 
126 
116 

113 



6.8 


171 


7.1 


178 


7.7 


157 


7.6 


112 


7.5 


123 


7.8 


146 


6.7 


144 


7.4 


157 


6.9 


17^ 


7.3 


17^ 



1W 



169 

134 
177 

208 
160 
138 
168 
131 

155 



Shale and 
S. S. rock 

(Local acid 
(spots 



Loessal 



224 


High percent 


230 


of loess in 


179 


W. Illinois 


133 




144 




155 




172 




167 




192 




288 





Subtotal and averages 



520 



7.3 



154 



177 



Northern Illinoi s 

M. F. Sheffield Bureau 
Northern Illinois Grundy 
Morri 8 Grundy 

Wilmington Will 
Northern Illinois Kankakee 

Subtotal and averages 



Eastern Illinois 
Harmattan 



Total and averages 



Vermilion 



76 


7.5 


145 


211 


|shaly 


87 


6.9 


142 


192 


28 


3.1 


84 


144 


Highly acid 


32 


7.6 


56 


170 


(Compact and 


40 


7.6 


110 


184 


(plastic 



263 



22 



1 324 



6.9 



6.7 



6.96 



121 



5S 



130 



a/ 

-' pH - 7.0 neutral; P - 92 lb/A, high; K 150-200 lb/A high 



189 



201 



Compact and 
plastic 



172 



-5- 

a use for a particular area of 8 trip-mined lands thorough sampling and testing 
are very important, The reaction and mineral content of the soil material 
greatly influence land usage and wide variation often occurs within relatively 
small areas* 

Grading of Strip-Mine Land: 

There has been much discussion of the pros and cons of grading or 
leveling in the strip-mine reclamation program* The character of the physical 
texture of the soil material and the eventual land use are of prime importance 
when considering grading* In several areas of Illinois the high percentage 
of loese and glacial till material, the low percentage of rock, the chemical 
composition of the soil material, and the methods of mining appear to make 
grading feasible* 

The effects of grading on soil structure, on the availability of 
plant nutrients, and on the growth of forage are being investigated* Two 
degrees of grading are being considered (l) grading to permit the use of power 
farm machinery, and (2) topping of the ridges or "strike-off" grading* In 
strike-off grading there is a minimum amount of compaction due to mechanical 
equipment, since the bulldozer makes at most only two runs along a ridge* To 
grade the mined land to the extent that farm power equipment can be used means 
that the grading equipment passes over the surface many more times* Therefore 
It is assumed that the compaction resulting from the more complete leveling 
would probably be greater than in strike-off grading* 

One study that is being conducted to determine the effects of grading 
on soil structure is an infiltration rate* This is the rate at which rain 
water passes downward into and through the soil* Three physical conditions 
of the mined land are selected, i.e., (1) undisturbed ridges or banks, (2) 
strike-off tops, and (3) nearly level, (access by farm equipment)* Each of 



-6- 

the three types of physical conditions is analyzed tinder two phases of vege- 
tation, i.e., well vegetated with legumes, and bare of vegetation. These 
studies are being carried on in southern andwestern Illinois on the two major 
spoil types, namely* calcareous clays and calcareous loams, and silty shales. 

The study is Incomplete so a full report cannot be made at this 
time* The work on the undisturbed ridges has not been completed so the com- 
parisons between no grading and strike-off grading or more complete grading 
or leveling cannot yet be made. However, It has been found that there is no 
difference in the infiltration rate due to strike-off grading versus more 
complete grading. This would seem to Indicate that the probability of greater 
compaction on the more completely graded area as mentioned above may be in 
error or the effect of the greater compaction Is very temporary. Vegetation 
and time after grading does Improve the rate of Infiltration. Deep-rooted 
legumes and weathering, such as freezing and thawing and alternate wetting 
and drying, result In an Increased rate of infiltration. 

Another study is the effect of grading on the availability of 
plant nutrients. Table 2 shows the effect of grading on the reaction or pH 
of the soil material and on the availability of phosphorus and potassium. 
The effect on reaction or pH was variable. In some cases the pH was lowered 
by grading. The pH of a calcareous loam soil (loessal) as found on the 
Midwest Radiant Corporation property was lowered 1 unit from ?•** to 6.4. 
Most others were changed to a lesser extent. Conversely on a calcareous clay 
as found on the Fidelity property the pH was raised. The average pH, however, 
remained about the same. 

Without exception the available phosphorus content was raised as a 
result of grading. The average Increase due to grading was approximately 56 
pounds per acre. Several of the areas were raised to 200 pounds plus, so 



-7- 



Table 2.~«5ffect of Grading on the Soil Reaction and 
Availability of Phosphorus and Potassium 



Location 



Number of 
camples pH 



I 



Spoil type 



3. Truax-Elkville 

7. Midwest Radiant 

11. U. K. Buckheart 

13. Truax-Piatt 

14. lairview 

15* M. E. Bapatee 



16. Little John 



17* M. E. Atkinson 



Not graded 20 
Graded (level) 15 



Hot graded 
Graded 



ded / 13 
(8.0. P 13 



Not graded 20 

Graded (Level) 12 

Hot graded 28 

Graded (Level) 15 

Hot graded 12 

Graded(l)(S.O.) 12 

Graded(2)£/&0.) 10 

Hot graded 32 

Graded (Level) 32 



Hot graded 8 
Graded (Level) 8 



Hot graded 16 

Graded (S.0.) 20 

Hot graded 26 

Graded (Level) 38 



19. Horthern Illinois Hot graded 5 

Graded (S.0.) 15 



Over-all average Not graded 180 

Graded 190 

Plus or minus 
for grading 



6.3 
6.0 



7.7 
7.3 

7.7 
7.6 

6.3 
7.5 
7.3 

7.8 
7.1 



7.7 
7.8 



7.2 
7.2 

7.4 
7.3 



8.0 
7.2 



58 
174 



155 

207 



7.4 116 107 
6.4 161 125 



94 143 

148 128 

144 154 

200+ 191 

131 148 

141 153 

195 196 

127 114 

200+ 247 



162 152 
200+ 164 



167 180 
200+ 185 



152 

174 



151 

154 



285 
288 



150 
179 



7.37 122.4 163.I 
7.36 179.2 207.7 



- .01 +56JB +44.6 



5-C mixed 
clays 

4-5 calcareous 

loam 8 

*4-C calcareous 
clay 

4-C calcareous 
clay 

^4-B calcareous 
loam 8 and 
silty shales 

4-B calcareous 
loams and 

silty shales 

4-B calcareous 
loams and 

silty shales 

^-C calcareous 
clay 

4-B calcareous 
loam 8 and 
silty shales 

4-1 calcareous 

loams and 
silty shales 



a/ 



S.0. Strike-off, top of ridge knocked off, 



1/ 



2 Two different locations graded. 



-8- 




** . 

■ « . 

t 




<^^m9^m~ 






4_ 







••Aft* ' -.'— • £v 



r\ ;% 



• 



' 



- 



* * .- 









Several mined areas in Illinois are "being graded to a more or less level condition. 
This large, heavy drag was being used on the graded areas to prepare a more suita- 
ble seedbed. (Fig. 2) 



-9- 

undoubtedly the total was actually raised more than 56 pounds per acre. The 
available potassium content fluctuated more but was generally increased as a 
result of grading. The average increase was h6 pounds per acre. 

There may be several explanations for these phenomena: (l) The 
mechanical breaking of the clay mineral tends to expose the nutrient material 
and make it temporarily more available. (2) Wetting and drying affects the 
availability of potassium especially. Thus over a period of time the availa- 
bility of potassium would be expected to increase even though no grading was 
involved. (3) Sulphur has the tendency to make phosphorus more available. 
Perhaps spreading the sulphur around would tend to accomplish this. Spreading 
the sulphur should tend to lower the pH or make the reaction more acid but 
there is also much calcium and magnesium present that is being spread as a 
result of grading which would raise the pH. This study requires a follow-up 
test to determine if the increased availability is only temporary. 

The growth of forage plants on graded areas is probably the best 
means of measuring the effect of grading. In observing the yields obtained 
from undisturbed ridges, itrike-off ridges and level areas, it can be seen 
that grading does not hinder vegetative growth. See Table 7. The yield of 
alfalfa hay from a level area in 195° was 6 tons per acre. In that par- 
ticular area the undisturbed mined land yielded 3 tons per acre. As yet an 
insufficient number of experiments have been setup to thoroughly study the 
yields that might be obtained from all three degrees of physical conditions 
of the resulting strip-mine area. 

From the studies made on fcrage growth it seems obvious that 
grading does not hinder the growth of forage, but rather it has several bene- 
ficial effects. Less seed is required per acre, thicker stands are obtained, 

less weeds are prevalent, and the excess forage material can be more easily 

1 



-10- 

harvested where grading has been done. Kohnke (l) reports that grading per- 
mits the soil formed from the raw soil materials to stay in place* Others 
report that where no grading has been done there is just enough erosion 
taking place to prevent the crowding out of the legumes due to the grasses 
becoming sod-bound* This phase of study requires much more time and research 
before conclusions can be drawn. 

Microbiological Studies: 

According to Waksman (3) the microscopic plant world is represented 
in the soil by bacteria, fungi* and algae* Microorganisms are by far the 
greatest contributors as biological agents of weathering thus participating 
In soil formation* Three distinct biological processes or functions of micro- 
organisms in the soil are: (1) The decomposition of organic matter, (2) the 
nitrification or accumulation of nitrates In the soil as a result of the 
decomposition of organic matter, and (3) nitrogen fixation by symbiotic and 
non8ymbiotlc bacteria* 

Legumes seeded on mined lands are inoculated with specific cultures 
of bacteria and in a symbiotic relationship are able to fix atmospheric 
nitrogen and supply it to plants in the form of nitrogenous nutrients* 
Azotobacter are capable of fixing nitrogen nonsymbiotlcally* Bacteria and 
fungi are essential in the decomposition of organic matter* 

Recently mined soils are presumably rery low or void of micro- 
organisms* A study has been initiated to determine in part the nature and 
extent of the microflora, etc* 

A study has been initiated to determine in part the nature of the 
microflora of the strip-mined soils under various stages of vegetation* 
Mr* Barrel Lynch, Tirst Assistant in Soil Biology, Is conducting this in- 
vestigation, fable 3 lists the numbers of fungi and azotobacter found* 

( 



-11- 



Table 3. — *b© Humber of Fungi and Asotobacter Found In 
Strip-Mine Soils Under Different Types of Vegetation 







Fungi number 




Nature of mined land 


Location 


per gram of soil 


Azotobacter 


Bare spoils, new 


Morgan 


10,000 


♦*/ 


Bare spoils, old 


Fidelity 


No information 


-»/ 


Alfalfa vegetation 


Fidelity 


Ho information 


++ 


Alfalfa vegetation 


Midwest Radiant 


Ho information 


++ 


Alfalfa vegetation 


Morgan 


80,000 


++ 


Alfalfa vegetation 


Truax-Fiatt 


40,000 


Hone 


Broaegrass vegetation 


Midwest Radiant 


Ho information 


■*-*■ 


Broaegrass vegetation 


Morgan 


80,000 


Hone 


Broaegrass vegetation 


Truax-Fiatt 


Ho Information 


Hone 


Locust tree cover 


Fidelity 


Ho Information 


++ 


Roadside soil 


Fulton county 


70,000 


♦ 


TTrbana area soil 


Champaign county 


250,000 


Hone 



a/ 

— ' ♦ abundant. 

*» *♦ very abundant* 



-12- 

The ■ trip-mined soils covered with bromegrass and alfalfa averaged 
around 60,000 fungi per gram of soil and the bare areas averaged about 10,000 
fungi per gram of soil* A road-side soil under bluegrass sod in Fulton 
county averaged approximately 70,000 fungi per gram while a highly fertile 
soil near Urbana, Illinois, averaged about 250,000 fungi per gram* The fairly 
large number of fungi present under the alfalfa and bromegrass cover shows 
that with vegetation there is a large increase in numbers of fungi* This 
would seem to indicate that the soil-forming processes are thus speeded up 
with an increase in the active organic matter content* 

The nitrogen content of these soils, one of the essential constituents 
of organic matter, is probably further enhanced by the presence of azotobacter 
species both in the bare spoils and in the areas seeded to alfalfa and brome- 
grass* It is interesting to note that the bare areas and the alfalfa cover 
apparently are more conducive to azotobacter growth than was the grass cover* 
The nature of the microflora as influenced by the type of plant may be a 
factor affecting azotobacter development. Much further quantitative work 
however needs to be done concerning the numbers and response of fungi, 
azotobacter, and other bacteria to crop growth and soil conditions* 
FORAGE CROP SPECIES ADAPTATION STUDIES: 

The number of experimental plots that have been established is now 
2,336» Of this number 999 are located in southern Illinois, 894 in western 
Illinois, and 443 iu the northern Illinois areas. Seventy-one different 
species and varieties of forage and cultivated crop plants have been used to 
seed these plots* Table 4 lists the species that have been seeded* 

Species Adaptation: 

Satisfactory results have been obtained with the following legumes: 
Alfalfa, sweet clover, red clover, birdsfoot trefoil, lespedeza, alslke, 



-13- 



Table 4.-~Forage Species Seeded 



Grasses 



Common Name 



Botanical Uame 



Kentucky bluegrass 
Canada bluegrass 
Big bluegrass 
Canby "bluegrass 
Hedtop 

Timothy 

Reed canary grass 

Orchard grass 

Bromegrass 

Mountain "Drome 

Meadow fescue 
Alta fescue 
Chewings fescue 
Creeping fescue 

Ryegrass 

Bermuda grass 
Dallas grass 
Crested wheatgrass 
Slender wheatgrass 
Western wheatgrass 

Blue grama 
Side-oat grama 
Big blue stem 
Little bluestem 
Buffalo grass 

Indian grass 
Tall oatgrass 
Canadian wild rye 
Mi chael ' s gras s 
Rhodes grass 

Switch grass 
Meadow foxtail 
Millets 
Sudan 
Sweet sudan 



Love grass 

"M" pasture mix 

Fields pasture mix 



Poa pratensis 
Poa compressa 
Poa ampla 
Poa canbyi 
Agrostis alba 

Phi em pratense 
Phragmites communis 
Dactyl is glomerata 
Bromus inerinis leyss 
Bronms marginatus 

Festuca pratensis 

Festuca pratensis var. alta 

Festuca rabra 

Festuca rubra var. creeping 

Lolium perenne 

Cynodon dactylum 
Paspalum no ta turn 
Agropyron cristatum 
Agropyron tenerium 
Agropyron smithii 

Bouteloua gracilis 
Bouteloua curtipendula 
Andropogon furcatus 
Andropogon scoparius 
Buchlae dactyloides 

Sorghastrum nutans 
Arrhenatherura elatius 
ELymus canadensis 

Chloris gayana 

Panicum virgatum 
Alcopecuris eliator 
Setaria sp. 
Sorghum halapenso 
(Cross) Sorghum halapense 
x S. vulgare 

Eragrostis curvula 



Calamagrostis epigea 



Common Name 

Wheat 

Oats 

Rye 

Corn 

Soybeans 

Japanese rose 



-1^~ 
Table 4. — (cont'd) - Forage Species Seeded 

Cultivated Crops 

Botanical Name 

Tri ti cum aestivuin 
Avena satlva 
Secale cereale 
Zea mays 
Glycine max. 



Legumes 



Alfalfa 

Sweet clover - yellow 
Sweet clover - white 
Hubam clover 
Spanish sweet clover 

Evergreen sweet clover 
Lespedeza - common 
Lespedeza - Korean 
Lespedeza - Kobe 
Lespedeza - Sericea 

Lespedeza - Bieolor 
Mammoth clover 

Alsike clover 
Crimson clover 
Subterranean clover 

White Dutch clover 
Ladino clover 
Hop clover 
Alyce clover 
Austrian winter pea 

Birdsfoot trefoil 
Big broadleaf trefoil 
Yellow trefoil 
Kudzu 
Lupines 

Lappacea 

Red clover, Kenland 

Red clover, Cumberland 

Red clover, Midland 

Sanfoln 

Crown vetch 
Button clover 
Persian clover 
Wagner pea 
Single tary pea 



Rosa multi flora 



Medicago sativa 
Melilotus officinaluB 
Melilotus alba 
Melilotus annula 
Melilotus suaveolus 

Melilotus 
Lespedeza striata 
Lespedeza stlpulacea 
Lespedeza striata var» 
Lespedeza sericea 

Lespedeza tricolor 

Tri folium pra tense var. 

perenne, 
Tri folium hybridum 
Tri folium incarnatum 
Tri folium subterraneum 

Trifolium repens 
Trifolium repens var. latum 
Tri folium procumbens 
Trifolium alyce 
Pi sum satlva var, 

Lotus corniculatus 
Lotus uligln08us 
Medicago lupullna 
Pueraria chunbergiana 
Luplnus sp. 

Trifolium lappaceaum 
Trifolium pra tense var, 
Trifolium pra tense var, 
Trifolium pratense var* 
Onobrychis vicioefolia 

Vicia sp, 

Medicago oebicularls 
Trifolium reseysinatum 
Lathyrus silvestris wagneri 



Hairy vetch 



Vicia villosa 



-15- 

Ladino, yellow trefoil, and Kudzu. Orchard grass, the tall fescues, bromegrass, 
redtop, timothy, bluegrass, and ryegrass have "been the grasses that are "best 
adapted. Heed canary grass, western wheatgrass, side-oat grass, love grass, 
Canadian wild rye, tall oatgrass, the native grasses, such as big and little 
bluestem, Indian grass, and switch grass have been established with varying 
success. The native grasses are very slow to become established* 

As reported in a previous report, alfalfa plants growing on strip- 
mined land have been observed to be heavy producers of seed clusters* Under 
Illinois climatic conditions normally very little alfalfa seed is produced. 
An attempt was made to gather information concerning seed yield. Alfalfa was 
cut for seed production on August 1, 1950 » from three different locations. 
The yields obtained are listed in Table 5* The alfalfa had not been cut or 
grazed previously but represented the total growth for the season. The yields 
obtained are phenomenal. However, for the data to be more reliable more 
samples should be taken. This will be done in 1951* 

If level areas are available for seed production of alfalfa, serious 
consideration should be given to growing and harvesting the crop. Spraying 
to kill harmful insects is advocated in the seed harvesting program. 

Alfalfa varieties of southern origin are being tested on strip-mine 
soils for winter-hardiness, longevity, and yield. The following varieties 
were seeded on six different areas: (l) New Mexico Common, Roswell, Hew 
Mexico, (2) lew Mexico Common, Hatch, Hew Mexico, (3) India, (4) Advance, 
and (5) Chilean all from Advance, Arizona. These varieties are being tested 
against Kansas Common strain and certified Buffalo alfalfa* 

Birdsfoot trefoil has continued to show up very well when seeded on 
strip-mined lands. This specie gives best results when seeded as the only 
legume plus one or two grasses. In its early stages of growth it does not 



-16- 



Table 5. — Yields of Alfalfa Seed Prom Strip-Mined Lands 

in Western Illinois, 1950 



Yield of cleaned seed 



replications 



1 
2 

3 
4 

Average 

Germination 
percentage 



Spoils 

372 
546 
150 
504 



S trike-off top - a 
lb./A 

174 
126 
156 
132 



39C5 



146.5 



.Level 
1dT7a~ 

330 
342 
360 

336 
342 



37 (51 + 36) 



84 (39 + 45) 92 (62 + 30) 



& Seed crop was too mature and had started to shatter when 
harvested. 



Table 6.— Yields of Eye on Level Area in Western Illinois - 1950 

Trnax-Traer Coal Co., Fiatt Mine 



Plot 

No. 



1 
2 

3 
4 

5 



H 




30 
30 

30 




Fertilizer treatment per acre 
Fall Spring 





60 





30 





60 




30 





30 

60 





P20c K 2 N P2O5 K?0 

vr. — rcr™ifc n>: — tbt — itr 



















Yield per acre 
Replications 

I II Average 
bUo 



bu ." "Tni. 



6.73 4.81 5-77 

26.19 41.58 33.88 

34.13 15.38 24.75 

12.74 15.14 13.94 

3.61 3.61 



-17- 



compete well with other legumes in a mixture. Seed of Italian origin is 
readily available. A New York selection, [Empire , is also available and is 
well adapted to strip-mine lands. Approximately 6 to 8 pounds of seed per 
acre have given satisfactory stands. Inoculation with the Lotus strain of 
inoculant is necessary for satisfactory results. 

Sweet clover, alfalfa, orchard grass, redtop, and timothy were the 
species most easily established when seeded into preestablished vegetation 
such as sweet clover or weedy areas. 

Establishment of Mixtures: 

Better pastures usually result where a mixture of grasses and 
legumes is seeded than when a single specie is seeded. Based on plot results 
the most satisfactory stands of desired species have been obtained by seeding 
the mixture In the spring of the year on newly mined areas. 

Some mixtures that have been successful are: 



(1) 



(2) 



(3) 











Total 










per acre 




lb. 




1&. 


lb. 


Alfalfa 
Lespedeza 
Sweet clover 
Ladino 


k 

3 

1 


Orchard grass 
Tall fescues 
Timothy 


3 

3 
2 


20 


Alfalfa 
Eed clover 
Alslke 
Ladino 


6 

3 
2 

1 


Bromegrass 
Orchard grass 


5 

3 


20 


Alfalfa 

Lespedeza 
Ladino 


6 

5 

1 


Orchard grass 
Alta fescue 


3 
3 


18 



Use of Grain and Seed Crops: 

Grain crops that have been seeded include wheat, rye, oats, Sudan 
grass, corn, and soybeans. Wheat, rye, and Sudan grass have generally given 
good results. The yields of rye obtained and the fertilizers applied on a 



-18- 





- A' 



SSI; 

v. 






Alfalfa and bromegrass plants growing on mined land in !*ulton 
county* Truax-Traer Coal Company. These two species are well 
adapted to mined lands and are valuable forages for livestock 
production in central and northern Illinois. (?ig» 3) 



-19- 

level area in western Illinois are listed in Table 6* In the past on similar 
plots nitrogen alone has given the highest yield* On this area it appears 
that the phosphorus and potassium applied gave an increase in yield over and 
above the nitrogen needed* According to soil tests taken in this area the 
available phosphorus and potassium present in the soil was adequate without an 
additional application. It should be stressed, however, that without nitrogen 
added the phosphorus and potassium resulted in a very small yield* 

A level area of approximately 14 acres was seeded to wheat by one of 
the coal companies* This wheat averaged 25 bushels per acre; 357 bushels of 
wheat were harvested from the area* One-hundred and fifty pounds of 3-12-12 
were applied per acre* The nitrogen content of this soil material was high, 
since the soil in this area was a calcareous peaty material* 

Excellent growth of Sudan, fertilized with a high nitrogen carrying 
material, was observed on another extensively leveled area in western Illinois* 

Adaptation of Multiflora Hose and Lespedeza Blcolor: 

Rosa multiflora has been planted on strip-mined lands and its growth 
and survival observed. Excellent survival and growth were obtained in western 
Illinois* After 2 years growth the branches measured from 6 to 8 feet in 
length. Best results were obtained when a manure mulch and a small amount of 
ammonium nitrate was applied at planting time* The plants were planted in two 
rows about 18 inches apart with 12 to 18 inch spacing of plants within the row* 

If the rose will make satisfactory growth and survival, it will be 
practical to use it for extensive fence building on strip-mined lands* Planting 
it on the top of ridges that have been knocked off appears to be practical. 
Interior fencing can be built by this means* The rose must be protected from 
livestock for some time after planting because livestock will eat off the tips 
of the branches and retard the growth* This rose also makes excellent wild 
life cover. 



-20- 

Lespedeza bicolor, a shrubby type of plant used for wild life 
(quail) food, was first seeded on the strip-mine land in 1948. The seed was 
obtained from the Natural History Department, Wildlife Division, of Georgia* 
The stand obtained was not tso good but many plants were established* Seed 
was produced in 19^9 and 1950. This specie grows better in southern than in 
western Illinois. 

Collection of Naturally Introduced Species: 

To obtain information about the nature of plants that can be found 
growing on strip-mined land a plant collection was started in 1950* This 
collection did not include trees, but was predominantly of herbaceous plants. 
A total of 158 different plant species was collected, mounted, and identified. 
Fifty- three of these had been seeded and were considered to be artificially 
Introduced, while the remainder, 105 species, were considered as being naturally 
introduced species. Thirty- four different plant families were represented 
by these species. The families represented most often were the Composite 
family with 19 species, the Grass family with Ik naturally introduced and 32 
artificially introduced species, the Pea family with 5 naturally introduced 
and 21 artificially introduced species, and the Buckwheat family with 5 
species. 

The list is not complete but does represent the plants seen most 
often and are rather commonly found on strip-mined lands. The collection will 
be continued in 1951« 
DETERMINATION OP FORAGE YIELDS AND QUALITY: 

Measurement of Forage Yields: 

On seeded areas that have become satisfactorily established, hay 
yields have been obtained. This was done by cutting either two or four- 
foot square areas of forage. The forage was dried, weighed, and converted to 



-21- 

jlelds expressed as pounds and tons per acre. Table 7 gives the hay yields 
of forage produced on strip-mined lands in 1950 • 

Alfalfa yields were taken at seven different locations with several 
replications at each location. The average yield obtained was 7,067 pounds 
or 3«53 tons per acre. The highest yield was obtained in Knox county on a 
level area. An acre, cut three times, yielded 186 bales or 12,620 pounds or 
6.3 tons of hay per acre. The lowest yield of alfalfa was 2.8 tons of hay per 
acre. 

Birdsfoot trefoil was cut at five different locations. The average 
yield obtained was 6,811 pounds or 3«^ tons of hay per acre. Three cuttings 
per season were made. Legume mixtures were cut at seven different locations. 
The average yield, three cuttings per season, was 4,702 pounds or 2.35 tons 
per acre. The yield of lespedeza cut at nine different locations averaged 
3,350 pounds or 1.68 tons of hay per acre. The differences in yields from 
undisturbed mined areas (A), strike-off ridges (B), and leveled areas (C), 
are listed. It should be pointed out that the hay yields on strike-off 
ridges and leveled areas (B and C) were as good or better than yields from 
undisturbed mined areas (A). 

Hay yield data will be helpful in determining the carrying capacity 
of strip-mined pastures. By comparing these yields with actual grazing 
conditions more information concerning carrying capacity will be obtained. 

Chemical Composition of Forage Species: 

The chemical composition of forage growing on strip-mined land in 
19^8 and 19^9 is presented in Tables 8 and 9. Samples of the various forages 
were collected from the several spoil types at different locations and at 
various times of the year. Most species were sampled at the bloom stage of 
growth. 



-22- 



Table 7.~~Hay Yields of Forage Produced on Spoil Bank PlotB, 1950 



Forage specie 



Number of 
samples 



Location 



Property 



Alfalfa 
plus grasses 
(3 cuttings) 



1 acre 

Average yield 

"Birdsfoot trefoil 
plus grasses 
(3 cuttings) 



Average yield 

Lad 1 no 
(3 cuttings) 

Lespedeza 
(1 cutting) 



Average yield 

Legume mixtures 
(3 cuttings) 



Average yield 



12 

8 
6 
4 
4 
6 
186 bales 



8 
8 
2 

3 
4 



2 
14 
2 
2 
2 
2 
6 

3 
3 



4 

5 
5 
4 

3 
7 

n 



Delta 

Pyramid 

Midwest Radiant 

Morgan 

Cuba 

Midland Electric 

Midland Electric 



Delta 

Pyramid 

Midwest Radiant 

Morgan 

Cuba 



Morgan 



County 



Type of 

plots^/ Yield per acre 



Williamson 

Perry 

St. Clair 

Fulton 

Fulton 

Knox 

Knox 



Williamson 
Perry 
St. Clair 
Fulton 
Fulton 



Fulton 



A 
A 
B 
A 
A 
A 
C 



A 
A 

B 
A 
A 



A 



Sahara 




Saline 


C 


Delta 




Williamson 


A 


T-T Elkville 




Jackson 


A 


T-T Elkville 




Jackson 


B 


T-T Elkville 




Jackson 


C 


Fidelity 




Perry 


A 


Pyramid 




Perry 


A 


Midwest Radiant 


St. Clair 


B 


Morgan 




Fulton 


A 


Delta 




Williamson 


A 


Pyramid 




Perry 


A 


Southwestern 


(old) 


Randolph 


A 


Southwestern 


(new) 


Randolph 


A 


Morgan 




Fulton 


A 


B. Somers (Lot 1) 


Fulton 


A 


T-T Fiatt 




Fulton 


A 



lb. tone 



6 

5 
6 
6 

5 
6 



*T"V*"V 

489 

969 
422 
520 
00? 
12 620 
7 067 



6 

5 



5 
7 
6 



566 

386 



8 688 



668 
746 
811 



3.2 
2.8 

3.5 
3.2 
2.8 
3.0 

6.3 
3.53 

3.3 
2.7 
4.2 
2.8 
3.9 
3.4 



5 968 3.0 



3 942 


2.0 


2 664 


1.3 


3 780 


1.9 


4 524 


2.3 


3 708 


1.9 


3 504 


1.8 


2 010 


1.0 


4 672 


2.3 


1 350 


.7 


3 350 


1.68 


4 680 


2.3 


4 807 


2.4 


4 462 


2.2 


4 057 


2.0 


5 874 


2.9 


3 876 


2.0 


5 160 


2.6 


4 702 


2.35 



£/ 



A - undisturbed spoil banks. B - strike-off tops. C - level or partially level. 



~2> 



Table 8 •—Chemical Composition of Forage Crops Grown 



on Strip-Mined Land in 1948 



Number of 


















Crop samples 


N 


Protein 


P 


K 


Ca 


H 


Mn 


si 






pet. 


£Ct. 


pet. 


pet. 


pet. 


pot. 


pet. 


££t. 


legumes: 




















Alfalfa 


29 


2.99 


18.7 


.21 


1.56 


1.8? 


.49 


.0066 




Yellow trefoil 


8 


2.85 


17.8 


.21 


1.70 


2.05 


.47 


.... 




Birdefoot trefoil 


14 


2.75 


17.2 


.20 


1.76 


1.81 


.71 


.0111 




Birdsfoot trefoil (N.Y.) 


3 


2.29 


14.3 


.17 


1.58 


1.87 


.61 


.0188 




Red clover 


27 


2.67 


16.7 


.18 


1.48 


1.68 


.49 


.008? 




Mammoth red clover 


6 


3.50 


21.9 


.19 


2.10 


1.54 


.49 


..... 




Lad 1 no 


13 


2.85 


17.8 


.23 


1.46 


1.42 


.49 


..... 




Alsike 


24 


2.90 


18.1 


.24 


1.97 


1.55 


.50 


.0144 




White Dutch clover 


8 


3.10 


19.2 


.24 


.97 


1.75 


•55 


..... 




Sweet clovexv 1st year 




















June- Augus t 


16 


3.54 


22.1 


.22 


1.31 


1.84 


.57 


.0089 




Sep t ember-November 


12 


3.31 


20.7 


.23 


1.15 


1.41 


.54 


.0092 




May- June, 2nd year 


13 


2.88 


18.0 


.23 


1.44 


1.56 


.41 


.0075 




Hubam 


7 


2.85 


17.8 


.22 


1.70 


2.05 


.47 


..... 




Lespedeza, Korean 


21 


2.11 


13.2 


.24 


1.18 


1.10 


• 33 


.0085 




Lespedeza, Kobe 


7 


1.79 


U.3 


.20 


1.22 


1.07 


.32 


.0100 




Lespedeza, Sericea 


3 


2.21 


13.8 


.18 


.... 


I.09 


.33 


.0062 




Crimson clover 


2 


2.73 


17.1 


.16 


1.52 


2.14 


.36 


. . . • • 




Button closer 


1 


2.16 


13.5 


.22 


1.05 


1.24 


.56 


.0175 




Lappacea clover 


1 


1.42 


8.9 


.18 


.85 


1.82 


.60 


.0360 




Austrian winter pea 


1 


3.88 


24.3 


•25 


2.32 


1.30 


•30 


.0010 




Grasses: 




















Kentucky bluegrass 


6 


1.49 


9.3 


.23 


.78 


.36 


.23 


.0093 


1.19 


Br ome grace 


4 


2.00 


12.5 


,28 


2.25 


.51 


• 56 


.0154 


1.89 


Orchard grass 


4 


1.96 


12.3 


.29 


2.90 


.49 


.38 


.0244 


2.15 


Tall fescues 


3 


1.78 


11.1 


.31 


. •• . 


.51 


.31 


.0200 


2.32 


Timothy 


6 


1.84 


11.5 


.28 


2.27 


.38 


.24 


.0092 


1.00 


Red top 


6 


1.46 


9.1 


.37 


1.68 


.44 


.28 


.0160 


2.68 


Ryegrass 


6 


1.88 


11.7 


.25 


.... 


.56 


.26 


.0125 


2.51 


Canadian wild rye 


4 


1.78 


11.1 


.29 


.... 


.36 


.23 


• a • . . 


.... 


Western wheat grass 


2 


1.66 


10.4 


.27 


.... 


.56 


.27 


.0130 


4.02 


Love grass 


2 


1.39 


8.7 


.15 


... 


.24 


.12 


.0100 


1.77 


Rhode 8 grass 


3 


1.51 


9.4 


.23 


.... 


.51 


.20 


. . . • . 


.... 


Tall oatgra68 


1 


1.38 


8.6 


.10 


. » » • 


.56 


.44 


.0215 


2.93 


Sweet Sudan 


2 


1.38 


7.4 


.19 


• • • . 


.55 


.25 


.0065 


4.44 


Michaels grass 


1 


1.84 


11.5 


.24 


.... 


.36 


.15 


.0065 


1.39 



-24- 

Table 9*~ Chemical Composition of Forage Crops Grown 

on Strip-Mined Land in 1949 





Number of 


■ ■ * ■' 












Crop 


samples 


N 


Protein 


P 


K 


Ca 


Mg 






pet. 


net. 


pet. 


pet. 


pet. 


pet. 


Legumes: 
















Alfalfa 


19 


2.80 


17.5 


.21 


1.71 


1.35 


.38 


Yellow trefoil 


7 


3.10 


19.4 


.26 


2.22 


1.2.6 


.60 


Birdsfoot trefoil 


21 


2.53 


15.8 


.22 


1.75 


1.36 


.53 


Birdsfoot trefoil (K, 


,y.) 2 


2.20 


13.8 


.23 


1.77 


1.28 


.54 


Red clover 


14 


2.58 


16.] 


.18 


1.93 


1.28 


.43 


Mammoth red clover 


4 


2.11 


13.2 


.17 


1.27 


1.26 


.57 


Ladino 


19 


3.27 


20.4 


.24 


2.18 


1.46 


.57 


Alsike 


15 


2.91 


18.2 


.23 


2.23 


1.05 


.58 


Sweet clover, 1st year 














July-August 


10 


3.39 


21.2 


.22 


1.94 


1.41 


.59 


Sept ember- November 


10 


2.78 


17.4 


.20 


1.31 


1.00 


.50 


May- June, 2nd year 


13 


3.01 


18.8 


.22 


1.89 


1.20 


.57 


Hubam 


6 


3.17 


19.8 


.35 


1.69 


1.30 


.53 


Lespedeza, Korean 


8 


2.09 


13.1 


.18 


.89 


.84 


.28 


Lespedeza, Kobe 


1 


1.90 


11.9 


.13 


.70 


.82 


.24 


Lespedeza, Sericeti 


3 


1.72 


10.8 


.15 


.79 


.67 


.23 


Kudzu leaves 


1 


2.24 


14.0 


.42 


2.60 


.60 


.44 


Grasses: (Hay stage) 
















Kentucky bluegrass 


3 


1.76 


11.0 


.24 


1.84 


.37 


.25 


Bromegrass 


4 


1.40 


8.8 


.15 


2.35 


.40 


.22 


Orchard grass 


7 


1.51 


9.^ 


.25 


2.44 


.43 


.29 


Alta fescue 


6 


1.43 


8.9 


.19 


1.94 


.40 


.33 


Timothy 


4 


1.57 


9.3 


.20 


2.09 


.36 


.21 


Redtop 


7 


1.15 


7.2 


.17 


1.34 


.44 


.25 


Tall oatgrass 


2 


1.05 


6.6 


.21 


2.13 


.25 


.24 


Little bluestem 


1 


.60 


3.8 


.14 


.80 


• 30 


.13 


Big bluestem 


1 


.60 


3.8 


.15 


.62 


.30 


.13 


Switch grass 


1 


.82 


5.1 


.12 


•55 


.70 


.34 



-25- 

In studying the chemical composition of plants, it is well to keep 
in mind the influencing factors that may cause variations. Composition may 
vary with the species, stage of growth, climatic conditions, productivity and 
mineral content of the soil. Internal or external injuries by insects, 
diseases, rodents, animals or weather may also affect the composition of vege- 
tation. 

Legumes are relatively high in protein and calcium and for this 
reason are highly valuable as a feed. Grasses are lower in protein and certain 
minerals, but are high in carbohydrates supplying the balance necessary for a 
good ration. 

Table 10 gives the comparison of the chemical composition of several 
forage species grown on strip-mined land in 19^8 and in 19^9 with the forage 
grown on Illinois farms. The nitrogen and protein content of the strip-mine 
forage for both years is higher than that grown on Illinois farms for alfalfa, 
red clover, first year sweet clover, lespedeia, Kentucky bluegrass, and orchard 
grass. The nitrogen and protein content of the Ladino grown on strip-mine 
lands had been markedly lower than that grown on Illinois farciE. It has been 
difficult to get good stands of Ladino growing on the strip-mine lands. The 
growth in 1950 appeared better than in previous years. 

With regard to phosphorus the chemical composition of strip-mine 
forage has been very high. The tests of strip-mine soil material show that 
the available phosphorus content is very high so it is expected that this 
element would be high in the forage. The potassium, calcium, and magnesium 
content of the strip-mine forages compare very favorably with that grown on 
Illinois farms, 

A study to determine the chemical composition of several species 

during different months of the year was started in 19^9, The species studied 

i 



-26- 



Table 10.-~ Comparison of the Chemical Composition of Several Forage 
Species Grown on Strip-Mined Land in 1948 and 1949 
With That Grown on Illinois Farm 







Number of 


» 














Crop 




samples 


N 


Protein 


P 


K 


Ca 


Mg 


Mn 








pet. 


pet. 


pet. 


pet. 


pet. 


pet. 


pet. 


Alfalfa 




















1946 




29 


2.99 


18.7 


.21 


1.56 


1.87 


.49 


.0066 


B-518&/ 




19 


2.80 


17.5 


.21 


1.71 


1.35 


• 38 


.0022 




50 


2,75 


17.2 


.18 


1.25 


1.75 


.49 


.0100 


Red clover 




















1948 




27 


2,67 


16.7 


.18 


1.48 


1.68 


.49 


.0087 


1949 , 
B-5182J 




14 


2.58 


16.1 


.18 


1.93 


1.28 


.43 


..... 




50 


2.37 


14.8 


.16 


1.30 


1.47 


.46 


.0500 


Lad i no 




















1948 




13 


2.85 


17.8 


.23 


1.46 


1.42 


.49 


..... 


1949 1 
B-518^ 




19 


3.27 


20.4 


.24 


2.18 


1.46 


.57 


.0016 




50 


3*56 


22.2 


.31 


2.24 


1.61 


.48 


.OO55 


Birdsfoot trefoil 




















1948 




14 


2.75 


17.2 


.20 


1.76 


1.81 


.71 


.0111 


1949 . 
B-518^ 




21 


2.53 


15.8 


.22 


1.75 


1.16 


.53 


.0040 




6 


2.75 


17.2 


.20 


1.50 


1.22 


•31 


..... 


Sweet clover, 1st 


year 


















1948 (September-November) 


12 


3.31 


20.7 


.23 


1.15 


1.41 


.54 


.0092 


1949 (September-November) 


20 


3*09 


19.3 


.21 


I.63 


1.31 


*55 


.0040 


B- 51 QSJ (October- 


•November) 


17 


2.07 


12.9 


.11 


.80 


1.35 


.62 


.1000 


Sweet clover, 2nd 


year 


















1948 (May- June) 




13 


2.88 


18.0 


.23 


1.44 


1.56 


.41 


.0075 


1949 (May-June) 




13 


3.01 


18.8 


• 22 


1.89 


1.20 


.57 


..... 


B-518S/ (April-May) 


30 


3.45 


21.6 


•30 


1.60 


1.64 


.57 


..... 


Lespedeza 




















1948 




21 


2.11 


13.2 


.24 


1.18 


1.10 


.33 


.0085 


1949 7 
B-5182/ 




8 


2.09 


13a 


.18 


.89 


.84 


.28 


..... 




50 


2.02 


12.5 


.15 


.95 


.85 


.29 


.0700 


Kentucky bluegrast 


! 


















1948 




6 


1.49 


9.3 


.23 


.78 


.36 


.23 


.0093 


1949 , 
B-518S/ 




3 


1.76 


11.0 


.24 


1.84 


.37 


.25 


.0111 




50 


1.47 


9.2 


.19 


1.64 


.31 


.20 


.0950 


Bromegra88 




















1948 




4 


2.00 


12.5 


.28 


2.25 


.51 


.56 


.0154 


1949 7 
B-518&/ 




4 


1.40 


8.8 


.15 


2.35 


.40 


.22 


.0096 




50 


1.49 


9.3 


.17 


2.21 


.40 


.15 


.1200 


Orchard grass 




















1948 




4 


1.96 


12.3 


.29 


2.90 


.49 


.38 


.0244 


1949 , 
B-518^ 




7 


1.51 


9.4 


.25 


2.44 


.43 


.29 


.0182 




30 


.97 


6.0 


.18 


1.90 


.27 


.21 


.2800 


Tall fescues 




















1948 




3 


1.78 


ll.l 


•31 


.... 


.51 


.31 


.0200 


1949 / 




6 


1.43 


8.9 


.19 


1.94 


.40 


.33 


.0103 




5 


1.45 


9.1 


.24 


1.74 


.35 


.22 


.0047 



& Snider, H. J. "Chemical Composition of Hay & Forage Crops". Illinois Agricultural 
Experiment Station Bulletin 518. 1946. 



-27- 

were alfalfa, Ladino clover, orchard grass, bromegrass, and Alta fescue. 
The results obtained and a comparison, where possible, with the forage grown 
on Illinois farm soils are presented in Tables 11, 12, and 13* 

In alfalfa, the nitrogen and protein content was lowest during the 
months of July and August and highest during the fall months* The phosphorus 
content of the alfalfa on strip-mine lands was universally as high or higher 
than the alfalfa grown on Illinois farms. In general the chemical composition 
of the alfalfa grown on strip-mine lands compared very favorably with that 
grown in other areas of Illinois* 

A comparison of the composition of Ladino clover is given in Table 
12. The nitrogen and protein content is lowest during the month of July. 
In studying Table 12 it is observed that the nutrient content of the several 
elements is quite high. The top growth of Ladino clover is largely leaves 
with the stems making up a small percentage of total growth. The composition 
of alfalfa leaves listed in the table shows that the nutrient level of leafy 
alfalfa is also very high. Both of these species make excellent feed, which 
is emphasized by the data listed in Tables 11 and 12* 

Table 13 lists the chemical composition of three grass species 
growing on strip-mined lands at six different times of the year during 19^9» 
Orchard grass and Alta fescue are earlier maturing species than bromegrass. 
This accounts in part for the fact that the bromegrass is higher in protein 
content than the other two grasses. These grasses were growing in legumes 
which is their principal source of nitrogen. From this data it appears that 
the nitrogen requirement of the grasses is met by the legumes. 

Composition of Tops and Boots of Six Legume Species: 

A number of plants were dug during the 19^9 season and the tops and 
roots were analysed separately. The composition of the tops and roots of 



-28- 



Table 11.— Chemical Composition of Alfalfa During 



Seven Months of the Year 



Location 


Year 


Month 


Number of 
samples 


B 


Protein 


P 


K 


Ca Mg Mn 










pet. 


pet. 


p_ct. 


pet. 


PCt. 


pet. 


£Ct. 


Strip Mine 
Strip Mine / 
Univ. of 111.^ 


1948 

1949 
1948 


Mar 

May 
May 


3 

6 

3 


3-11 

3-37 
2.56 


19.4 
19.8 
16.0 


.19 
.22 

.13 


1.62 
1.88 
1.34 


2.91 

1.85 
2.00 


.54 
.58 
.49 


.0090 

.0028 
.0065 


Strip Mine 
Strip Mine j 
Univ. of 111.^ 


19*48 
1949 
1948 


June 
June 
June 


3 
7 
3 


3.25 
2.59 
3.06 


20.3 
16.2 
19.1 


.23 
.19 
.14 


1.35 
1.67 
1.59 


2.07 
1.27 
1.33 


.45 
.38 
.47 


.0066 
.0030 
.0070 


Strip Mine 
Strip Mine , 
Univ. of Ill.S/ 


1948 

1949 
1948 


July 
July 
July 


6 
6 
2 


2.97 
2.70 
3.02 


18.6 
16.9 
18.9 


.20 

.19 
.20 


1.53 
1.86 
1.44 


1.74 
1.10 
1.78 


.59 
.39 
.52 


.0064 
.0023 
..... 


Strip Mine 
Strip Mine / 
Univ. of Ill.fi/ 


19^8 

1949 
1948 


August 

August 
August 


5 
2 

3 


2.65 
3.4o 

3.35 


16.6 
21.3 

20.9 


.19 
.30 
.21 


1.46 
2.05 
2.3 7 


1.73 
1.21 

1.31 


.49 
.36 
.40 


.0068 
.0014 
♦ 0070 


Strip Mine 
Strip Mine / 
Univ. of Ill.fi/ 


1948 
1949 
1948 


September 
September 
September 


3 

1 


3.48 

3.39 
2.81 


21.8 
21.2 
17.6 


.28 

.25 

.20 


1.78 

1.99 
.81 


1.77 
1.26 
1.46 


•39 
.31 
.56 


.0025 
.0021 
. . . » • 


Strip Mine 
Strip Mine / 
Univ. of 111. 3 ' 


1948 
1949 
1948 


October 
October 
October 


3 
5 

. 


3-30 
3.99 
.... 


20.6 
24.9 
•••• 


.22 

.30 

... 


1.81 

2.57 
.... 


I.67 
1.18 
. . * . 


.41 

• 35 

. • » 


.0098 

.0015 


Strip Mine 
Strip Mine / 
Univ. of 111.-' 


1948 
1949 
1948 


November 

November 
November 


U 
3 


. . » • 

3.62 
2.83 


...» 

22.6 
17.7 


... 

.24 

.17 


. . « . 

2.01 

1.35 


. . .a 
1.30 

1.24 


... 

.37 
.40 


. . » • . 

.0030 
.0249 


Strip Mine 


1948 


Average 


29 


2.99 


18.7 


.21 


1.56 


1.87 


.49 


.0066 


Strip Mine 


1949 


Average 


19 


2.80 


17.5 


.21 


1.71 


1.35 


.38 


.0022 


^518^ 


1948 


Average 


50 


2.75 


17.2 


.18 


1.25 


1.75 


.49 


.0100 






Snider, H. J. Unpublished data. 

Snider, F. J. "Chemical Composition of Hay & Forage Crops". Illinois Agricultural 
Bxperiwnt Station Bulletin 518. 1946. 



-29- 

Table 12.~-Chemlcal Composition of Lad J no Clover 
and Alfalfa Leaves During Several Manths of the Year 









Number 


of 














Location 


Year 


Month 


samples 


N Protein 


P 


E 


Ca 


Mg 














pet. 


pet. 


pet. 


pet. 


£Ct. 


pet 


Strip Mine 
Strip Mine / 
Univ. of 111 A 


19^ 
1949 
1948 


May 
May 
May 




• • 
4 
2 




.... 

3.69 
4.44 


.... 
23.1 
27.8 


... 
.27 
Ol 


. . • • 

2.34 
2.09 


.... 

1.82 
1.68 


... 
.68 

.47 


Strip Mine 
Strip Mine / 
Univ. of 111*2/ 


1948 
1949 
19^*6 


June 
June 
June 




. . 
4 
2 




3.03 
3.56 


• • • • 

18.9 
22.3 


... 
.23 
.27 


2.05 
1.95 


.... 
1.60 

1.45 


• . . 

.60 

.45 


Strip Mine 
Strip Mine / 
Univ. of 111.*' 


1948 
19^9 
1948 


July 
July 
July 




2 

3 
2 




2.79 

2.93 
3.44 


17.4 
18.3 
21.5 


.25 

.24 

.26 


1.60 
2.17 
1.90 


1.74 
1.47 
1.56 


.59 
.54 
.57 


Strip Mine 
Strip Mine / 
Univ. of 111.*' 


1948 

19^9 
1948 


August 
August 
August 




4 
1 
2 




2.80 
3.68 
3.17 


17.5 

23.O 

19.8 


.21 

.31 
.24 


1.29 
2.28 
1.88 


1.57 

.95 
1.41 


.56 
.50 
.51 


Strip Mine 
Strip Mine / 
Univ. of 111.*' 


1948 
1949 
1946 


September 
September 
September 




3 
2 




2.U8 
3.34 
3.^7 


15.5 
20.9 
22.9 


.22 
.24 
.27 


1.12 
2.22 
1.93 


1.30 
I.07 
1.55 


.56 
.52 
.50 


Strip Mine 
Strip Mine / 
Univ. of 111.*' 


1948 

19^9 
1948 


October 
October 
October 




4 

3 
1 




3.21 

3.95 
3.72 


20.1 

24.7 
23.2 


.24 
.24 
.23 


1.83 
2.51 
2.10 


1.53 
1.22 

1.40 


.48 
.47 
.48 


Strip Mine 


1948 


Average 




13 




2.85 


17.8 


.23 


1.46 


1.42 


.49 


Strip Mine 


1949 


Average 




19 




3.27 


20.4 


.24 


2.38 


1.46 


.57 


Univ. of 111^/ 


1946-48 


Average 




50 




3.56 


22.2 


.31 


2.24 


1.61 


.46 






Alfalfa 


, leaveB - 


1948^ 
















June 




2 




4.35 


27.2 


.33 


1.94 


2.52 


.48 






July 




1 




4.46 


28.0 


.29 


2.51 


1.82 


.33 






August 




2 




3.90 


24.4 


.20 


1.94 


1.88 


.51 






November 




2 




3.84 


24.0 


.23 


1.83 


2.00 


.49 




Average 


leaf 


3 


570 lb/A 


4.10 


25.6 


.26 


1.99 


2.09 


.45 




Average 


stem 


4 


020 


lb/A 


2.00 


12.5 


.18 


2.15 


.83 


.31 



a/ 



Snider, H. J. Unpublished data. 



-30- 



Table 13.— 'Chemical Compo8ition of Three Grass Species Growing 
on Strip-Mined Lands at Six Different Tines of the Tear, 1949 



Month and crop 


Number of 
samples 


N 


Protein 


P 


E 


Ca 


Mg 


Mn 


Si 






pet. 


pet. 


pet. 


pet. 


pet. 


pet. 


pet. 


pet. 


Ma7 (larly) 
Bromegrass 
Orchard grass 
Alt a fescue 


2 

3 
3 


2.60 
2.19 
1.92 


I6.3 
13.7 
12.0 


.21 

.25 
.22 


2.75 
2.92 

2.57 


.45 
.23 
.27 


.29 
.24 

.36 


.0135 
.0114 

.0113 


2.40 
1.62 
2.38 


May (Late) 

Bromegrass 
Orchard grass 

Alt a fescue 



2 
1 


... . 
1.52 

1.48 


9.5 
9.3 


... 
.26 

.17 


. . ft . 

2.40 
1.85 


. .. 
.30 
.30 


... 
.25 
.35 


..... 

.0073 
.0070 


2.09 

1.5* 


June 

Sronegrass 
Orchard grass 
Alta fescue 


4 
4 
3 


1.40 
1.44 

1.17 


8.8 
9.0 

7.3 


.15 
.23 
• 21 


2.36 
2.32 
2.04 


.40 
.56 
.36 


.21 

.33 
.28 


.0096 
.0203 

.0117 


1.46 
2*47 
3.06 


July 

Bromegrass 
Orchard grass 
Alta fescue 


3 

3 
4 


1.92 
1.98 
1.91 


12.0 
12.4 
U.9 


.24 
.28 
•28 


2.36 
2.71 
1.91 


.47 
.70 
.66 


• 26 

.45 
.52 


.0112 
.0117 
.0127 


2.07 
2.42 
3.01 


September 
Bromegrass 
Orchard grass 
Alta fescue 


2 

3 

4 


2.28 
1.64 
2.04 


14.3 
10O 
12.8 


• 26 

.30 
.22 


2.04 
2.02 
2.28 


.71 
.63 
.38 


.39 
.44 

.3* 


.0205 
.0200 
.0119 


3.03 
3.65 
2.61 


October 
Bronegrass 
Orchard grass 
Alta fescue 


2 

3 
4 


1.66 

2.20 
1.98 


10.4 
13.8 
12.4 


.18 

.35 
.21 


1.60 
2.37 
2.53 


.99 
.62 

.58 


.50 
.38 
.37 


.0335 
.0140 

♦0124 


4.15 
3.32 
2.91 



-31- 




) 

k 

i ■ » 

Mi ■•• • 
7 



V 








Two alfalfa and two sweet clover plants growing on strip-mine 
land showing top and root growth. The two plants to the left 
are alfalfa plants. The long taproot of the left plant was 
over k feet long, while the other root shows more branching, 
The sweet clover plants to the right show a less extensive 
root system. However, some sweet clover plants have "been dtig 
with taproots also over k feet long. (Fig. ^) 



-32- 

slx legume species Is listed in Table Ik, The plants were in the full bloom 
stage except for the first-year sweet clover which was dug in October. The 
nitrogen content of the roots is generally lower than the tops except for the 
first-year sweet clover. The calcium content of the roots is from 4 to 7 
times lower than the calcium content of the tops. 

Animal Gains as a Method of Measuring Yield and Quality: 

This is the third year during which steers have grazed on strip- 
mine pastures and their gains compared with gains made by steers that grazed 
on undisturbed land in bluegrass. During the 19**# and 19^9 seasons the 
University of Illinois, Animal Science Department, furnished the steers used 
in the tests. In 1950 the steers used were owned by Mr. Byron Somers, Canton, 
Illinois, Fulton county, on whose farm the tests were made. 

Twenty head of good to high good steers were selected from a drove 
of cattle which had been wintered on legume hay, corn silage, and some concen- 
trate. On May 5 the steers were gate sorted into two lots. Ten steers were 
grazed on strip-mined lands, while the same number were run on a bluegrass 
pasture as a check or control group. Both pastures were the same as those 
used in 19^8 and 19^9 in the Pulton county tests. 

The steers were kept on the respective pastures until November 7, 
a total of 186 days. After that date the two lots were run together on an 
alfalfa, Ladino and bromegrass pasture and started on a light feed of corn* 
On November 20, after they had been on feed for 13 days, 17 steers were 
weighed individually. As will be noted in Table 15, 8 steers of Lot 1 and 
9 steers of Lot 2 were individually weighed instead of 10 in each lot. When 
experimental cattle are grazed with other cattle it is difficult to separate 
and process the test steers, even though the steers were branded. Individual 
weighing is also a problem particularly if the corral end scale are not 



-33- 



Table 14. — Comparison of the Chemical Composition 
of the Top and Boot Material of Six Species, 1949 





Number of 


Part of 














Tield ratio 


Species 


samples 


plant 


I 


Protein 


P 


K 


Ca 


Mg 


root to tops 








pet. 


£Ct. 


pet. 


Ect. 


PjCt. 


ESt« 




Alfalfa 


7 


Tops 
Boots 


2.62 
2.04 


16.4 
12.8 


.19 
.20 


1.60 
1.07 


1.41 
.3^ 


.42 
.22 


1:2.41 


Sweet clover 
1st year (Oct. ) 


2 


Tops 
Boots 


2.23 
3.^3 


13.9 
21.4 


.19 
.31 


1.05 
.90 


.63 

.10 


.42 
.28 


1:0.97 


Sweet clover 

2nd year (Bloom) 


8 


Tops 
Boots 


2.41 
1.39 


15.1 
8.7 


.19 
.19 


1.70 
1.88 


1.11 

.17 


.54 
.59 


1:5.77 


Bed clover 


3 


Tops 
Boots 


2.62 
1.99 


16.4 
12.4 


.15 
.15 


1.74 
1.26 


1.32 
.25 


.55 
.52 


No data 


Alsike 


2 


Top 8 
Boots 


2.29 
2.19 


14.3 
13-7 


.13 
.13 


1.85 
1.23 


1.00 
.19 


.59 
.75 


No data 


Blrdsfoot trefoil 


2 


Tops 
Boots 


2.59 
2.63 


16.2 
16.4 


.22 

.26 


1.30 
1.14 


1.58 
.21 


.68 
.29 


No data 


Lad i no 


1 


Tops 
Boots 


2.96 
2.30 


18.5 
14.4 


.22 
.24 


1.95 
1.32 


1.55 
.20 


.66 
.*3 


No data 



Table 15.— Individual Weights of Steers Pastured 

in 1950 



Lot 1 — Spoil bank pastures - Fulton county 
Weight Weights' Gain on Arerage 
Tattoo May 5 Hot* 20 pasture dally gain 

fe JST^ — w* ur — 

78 790 1 110 320 l.6l 



80 


850 


1 150 


300 


1.51 


82 


810 


1 200 


390 


1.96 


84 


850 


1 200 


350 


1.76 


86 


810 


• •• • • 


• •• 


.»•* 


88 


700 




• • • 


• • • • 


90 


930 


1 130 


200 


1.01 


92 


830 


1 110 


280 


1.41 


9^ 


850 


1 170 


320 


1.61 


96 


790 


1 120 


J30 


1.66 


Are rage ■ 


821 


1 149 


311 


1.56 



Lot 2 — Undisturbed bluegrass pasture 
Fulton county 

79 860 1 110 250 1.26 

81 800 1 030 230 1.16 

83 870 1 140 270 I.36 

85 820 1 040 220 1.11 

87 740 940 200 1.01 

89 850 1 110 260 1.31 

91 790 990 200 1.01 

93 760 ... .... 

94 790 1 060 270 I.36 
94 888 1 070 190 .95 

Areraget 816 1 054 232 1.17 

& Weights after 186 day* of pasture plus 13 daye 
on feed (corn) and alfalfa, Ladino, brome field 
pasture. 



-35- 

especially equipped. Two steers were acidentally let out at the same time 
and were mixed with the herd again. It was not practical to resort and re- 
inspect the whole herd to get the individual weights of the two steers. 
These are the reasons why only 1? steers were weighed individually. The 
results, in terms of animal gains, for the 199 day period were as follows: 

Av. wt. Av. wt. Av. total Av. daily 
May 5 Ho v. 20 gain gain 

lb. lb. lb. lb. 

Lot 1, test steers^ 2 / 838 1 149 311 I.56 

Lot 2, control steers- 7 822 1 054 232 1.3 7 

— ' Average Initial and final weights of 8 steers. 

«* Average initial and final weights of 9 steers. 

Table 15 gives the individtial weights of each steer on May 5 and 
on November 20 and shows the difference in individual gains. For the 17 steers 
on which individual weights were taken the total gain varied from a high of 
390 pounds to a low of 190 pounds per head. A statistical analysis of the 
results shows that the difference in gains made by the two lots is highly 
significants The 19**8 and 19^9 results showed no significant difference in 
the gains made by the two groups. 

Lot weights of both groups of steers were obtained on August 14. 
Lot 1 had gained an average of 151 pounds while Lot 2 had gained an average 
of 1*»4 pounds per head. The average daily gains for the 101 days that they 
had been on pasture were 1.50 and 1.44 pounds respectively. Unfortunately 
neither lot of steers was weighed when it was removed from its experimental 
pasture on November 7 and turned onto a field of alfalfa-Ladino, bromegrass 
pasture where grain feeding was begun. However, all steers, except 3t were 
weighed individually November 20, but these weights were in all probability 
materially larger than those which would have been obtained 13 days earlier 
before grain feeding had begun. If it is assumed that the steers gained 



-36- 

30 pounds each during the 13-day feeding period, the pasture gains for Lot 1 
would be 281,5 pounds for 186 days. Of this gain 151 pounds wsre made the 
first 101 days for an average of 1,50 pounds per day and 1*4-7 pounds were made 
in the last 85 days for an average of 1,73 pounds per day, The averages for 
the first 101-day period are for 10 steers while the averages for the last 
period are for 8 steers. Using the same assumptions for Lot 2, a gain of 
208 pounds in 186 days is obtained, 1**4 pounds of which were made in the 
first 101 days for an average of 1.43 pounds per day, while only 64 pounds 
were made in the last 85 days for an average of only 0,75 pound per day* 

These results show that during the last half of the grazing period 
the gains made on the strip-mine pasture were very much higher than those 
made on the bluegrass pasture. The quality of forage on the strip-mine 
pasture was excellent throughout the year. The growth of legumes during 
the late summer and early fall was especially outstanding* 

A summary of the results obtained during the three grazing seasons 
in terms of average daily gains is as follows: 

Av, daily Av, daily Av. daily Three-year Av. 

gain gain gain daily gain 

19**8 1949 1950 1948-1950 

lb. lb. lb. lb. 

Lot 1, strip-mine pasture 1.19 0.98 1.56 1.24 
Lot 2, farm-land pasture 1.29 1.10 1.17 1.19 

The three-year average daily gain for the Lot 1 steers was 1.24 
pounds compared with 1.19 pounds for the Lot 2 steers. The average number of 
days on pasture was 176 days, A statistical analysis of the results obtained 
over the three-year period shows that the difference in gains made by the 
two lots is not significant. 

In 1950 it was possible also to obtain the gains nade by several 
herds of livestock grazing on strip-mined lands. One of these was a herd of 



-37- 




Livestock on full feed of concentrate while on t trip-mined pastures in Fulton county* 

(*ig. 5) 



-38- 

95 yearling steers owned by Mr. Byron Somers of Fulton county* The average 
weight of these 95 steers was approximately 480 pounds when turned on the 
strip-mined pasture on May 5» 1950. Their average weight on December 1, 1950, 
was 789 pounds* These steers grassed on the pasta.ro3 for 210 days and had 
gained an average of 309 pounds per steer. They made an average dally gain 
of 1.4? pounds, whereas the 10 test steers on similar pasture made an average 
daily gain of 1.56 pounds during practically the same period. 

The Meadowlark Farms, Inc. pastured a total of 95 steers and 33 
heifers on strip-mined lands in Fulton county in 1950. The 95 steers were 
turned on pasture on May 1 at an approximate weight of 500 pounds. They were 
taken off on October 11, at which time 43 of the more common steers were sold 
at an average weight of 732 pounds. This represents a gain of 232 pounds in 
165 days of grazing or an average daily gain of 1.4 pounds. The rest of the 
steers were placed on full feed and have not been marketed as yet. 

The 33 heifers also were placed on the strip-mine pastures on 
May 1 at an average weight of about 450 pounds. They were taken off on 
September 17 when 26 head were sold at an average weight of 648 pounds. This 
represents a gain of 198 pounds in 138 days for an average dally gain of 1.4 
pounds. 
ECONOMIC IKTEEPRBTATIONS: 

Methods, Costs, and Feasibility of Forage Species Establishment: 

The methods of seeding the mined areas in the past have been hand 
seeding, tractor mounted power seeder, and air seeding by airplane and heli- 
copter. There were no air seedings of strip-mined land made in Illinois in 
1950. The length of time required to seed the areas depends to a great 
extent on the species seeded. The seed of some of the grass species is very 
light in weight and bulky and requires more time to seed. It required 357 



-39- 

hours to seed one block of 262 acres by hand seeding or approximately 1 hour 
and 22 minutes per acre. Another area of 65 acres was hand seeded in 355 
hours or approximately 33 minutes per acre. The windmill type of hand seeder 
has been most successful* 

The total cost per acre varied greatly depending on the kind of 
seed or mixture used, the seeding rate per acre, as well as the labor involved. 
During the 1950 season the total costs ranged between $10 to $15 per acre. 

Accessibility After Establishment: 

In developing a mined area for pasture, accessibility throughout 
the area is of prime importance. Those who have had experience in managing 
livestock on strip-mined pasture are in accord with the recommendations and 
need for adequate roadways. The term adequate is extremely relative and 
usually too few roadways are made rather than too many. 

Some companies in developing an area for pasture have been knocking 
off the tops of all ridges to a width of from 12 to 16 feet before seeding. 
On one 305 acre area, using a D-8 dozer, it required 356 hours to top all 
ridges to an approximate average top width of Ik feet. Based upon a compe- 
tent mining engineering source the total cost of operating a D-8 dozer under 
1950 prevailing costs, mine labor rates, insurance, depreciation, etc., was 
approximately $7*35 per hour. At the rate of $7*35 P©r hour the cost to 
strike-off all the ridges on this 305 acre area would be approximately $8.60 
per acre. If the strike-off work can be done for a reasonable amount the 
benefits derived will more than repay the costs. The area is readily ac- 
cessible to seed either by hand or with tractor mounted seeders, roadways are 
already made, the management and control of livestock are made easier, and 
the scenery or sky line has been improved. 

Financial Returns: 

The factor that will determine the extent of development and future 



-40- 




Yiew of a grading project for a fence line and roadway into a large mined area. 
Adequate roadways and fencing into smaller pasture fields for rotational grazing 
are essential for efficient livestock management, (Fig. 6) 



-41- 



uee of mined areas is the financial returns realized from the use of strip- 
mined pasture lands or on leveled areas from the product produced. Financial 
returns on the pastures are dependent upon the gains made by livestock and 
the price of the livestock, and on the leveled areas on the yield and price 
of the produce raised. 

For example from the pasture lands, if over a 1?6 day pasture season 
each steer gained on the average 1*25 pounds per day, then 220 pounds of beef 
would be produced per steer* Also assuming, and there is some basis for the 
assumption, that the carrying capacity of a good strip-rained pasture is 2 acres 
per head or animal unit per year, then each acre of the pasture has produced 
110 pounds of beef per year. If the beef were sold at 28 cents per pound, the 
gross value would be $30.80 per acre* 

What return can be expected from a leveled area? If such an area 
were growing alfalfa and were cut for hay, assuming a yield of 3*5 tons of 
alfalfa hay per acre (average yield reported in Table 7) and a value of $20 
per ton, the gross returns would be $?0 per acre* The actual yield of 1 acre 
of alfalfa hay in 1950 was 186 bales or 12,620 pounds or 6*3 tons per acre* 
At $20 per ton the gross returns on this acre of leveled land in 1950 were 
$126* 

One way of utilizing a strip-mined land is by organizing the mined 
and unained land into farm units* By following a planned, long-range program, 
the costs and problems of establishing a profitable farm unit, the nucleus of 
which is the strip-mined land, can be greatly reduced* To accomplish this, 
two things need to be done: (l)The lands that do not contain mineable coal, 
and which make up a part of every mine property, must be improved and main- 
tained as soon as control is acquired, and (2) the mined land must be de- 
veloped progressively each year and utilized as soon as It is ready to produce* 



-42- 

The most concentrated and continued use of these lands will be made in this 
way, • — by Incorporating the ained land with surrounding farm land into a 
well organized farm unit. 

This principle has been put into effect in a number of instances* 
According to the Illinois Coal Strippers Association there are 16 units in 
operation or under planning and development at this time* These 16 units 
involve approximately 9*000 acres of mined land, approximately 5*000 acres of 
which were in actual use during 1950 and most of the remaining 4,000 acres 
will be used during 1951* The strip-mined areas in these units vary in size 
from 80 to 2,500 acres* The units also vary widely from well -planned, highly 
organized, operating units and well planned units not yet in full operation 
to areas that are used only for grazing purposes. 

An example of some of the steps that are taken to organize and 

evaluate such a farm unit is presented* A plan similar to this can be drawn 

up for the utilization of most of the strip-mined lands in Illinois* 

A FARM ORGANIZATION AND OPERATIONAL PLAN FOR LAND-USE OF A TYPICAL STRIP- 
MIKE AREA PUT INTO OPERATION IN 1950: 

Description of Soil and Land Capabilities Classification: 
This proposed plan is for 743*5 acres of land that has been classi- 
fied as follows: 265 acres of tillable crop land, 206*5 acres of non tillable 
land, and 272 acres of strip-mined land* Bie land use capabilities are as 
follows: 



Class II 


179 A* 


Clinton and Berwick s.l. 


Class III 


56 


Rolling Clinton phase 


Bottom 


30 


Hunt svl lie-like s.l* 


Class VI 


206*5 


Hickory Complex 


Spoils 


272 


Seeded Marcn, 1950 



Die Class II land ( 1 1 on map) can be cultivated safely with 
easily applied special practices* Bie predominant soil types are Clinton silt 
loam and Berwick loam, with a productive rating of 5 to 6* The rotation sug- 



-43- 

gested is a 2-1-2, or more specific, corn, corn, oats or other small grain, 
hay, hay* The conservation practices needed are adequate grass waterways and 
the application of limestone and phosphate and the growing of legumes* 
Approximately 56 acres of tillable land are Class III 



land* 



The dominant soil types are probably strongly sloping Clinton silt loam or 
lee 8 severe Hickory complex* When the land is cultivated more intensive 
conservation practices are necessary* Grass waterways, contour farming, and 
a less severe rotation are recommended* The suggested rotation is 1-1-4, or 
corn, oats, hay, hay, hay, hay* The remaining 30 acres is bottomland* This 
land is subject to overflow, but is potentially productive* The rotation 
suggested is corn, beans, with a rye cover crop. 

The nontlllable land, Class VI, is land that is not suitable for 
cultivated crops but is suitable for pasture. This land should be renovated 
for best pasture production* The 272 acres of strip-mined land were thoroughly 
sampled and the soil tested* Ninety-five samples were taken and the average 
pH was 7*4?, tiie average available phosphorus was 145*7 pounds and the aver- 
age available potassium was 153*6 pounds, excellent for potential pas tore 
production. This area was seeded during March, 1950, with a mixture of al- 
falfa, sweet clover, Mammoth clover, Ladino clover, orchard grass, and brome- 
grass at the rate of 20 pounds per acre. These pastures should be ready for 
use after April 30, 1951* There is a total of 478*5 acres of pastureland* 

The land use capabilities map is presented, and shows field arrange- 
ment, size of fields, and possible rotations. The proposed land use during 
a complete rotation cycle is also given* 

Investment for Limestone and Phosphate : 

The soil of the tillable crop land was sampled and tested for 

acidity, phosphorus, and potassium. Past history of the fields shows that 

i 



-44~ 



llttle or no limestone or phosphate or manure has been applied the last 8 
years. The tests reveal that 3 tons of limestone and 1,000 pounds of rock 
phosphate are required on all 265 acres. These applications should be made 
as soon as it fits into the rotation to do so, either before the oats or the 
teans are seeded. 



A summary of the estimates are: 

3 T/A. Ls. • $ 3.25/T 

1,000 #/A. r.phos. ® 24.00/ T 



$ 9. 75/ A. 
12.00 

Total Cost • 



$ 2,583.75 
3,180.00 



. $ 5,763.75 

Commercial fertilizers are also recommended (see Field plans) but 
they are considered to be annual expenditures with no carry-over value. 

PH0P0SED LAUD USE DURING A COMPLETE ROTATION CYCLE 



Field No , 

Class II 
1 
2 



3 



Acres 



36 

31 )-38 
7) 

2 ^ 

12) 
9)-35 

1*0 

36 



1222 

0ats H 
Corn 

Beans 

Corn 

Oats 
(Lesp.H) 



1251 

Hay 
Oats 



H 



Oats 
(Lesp.H) 

Corn 
Corn 



1252 

Corn 

Hay 

Hay 

Oats 
Corn 



H 



mi 

Corn 
Corn 

Hay 

Hay 
Oats 



122 

Oats 
Corn 

Corn 

Hay 
Hay 



Class III 
A 

*1 
B 2 

Cl 

C 2 



ll 


'■ 



179 Acres 



11 
8 

7 
10 

10 
10 



H 
Corn 0at8 ii 

Beans Oats~ 

Beans Oats 

Oats(S.C) Corn 
Oats| Hay 

Oats H Hay 



56 Acres 



Bottomland 
I 
II 



1255 

Hay 
Oats 

Corn 

Corn 
Hay 



Hay 


Hay 


Corn 


Oats 


Hay 


Hay 


Hay 


Corn 


Hay 
Oats fl 


Hay 


Hay 


Hay 


Hay 
Oats* 


Hay 


Hay 


Corn 


Hay 
Oats 


Hay 


Hay 


Corn 


Hay 



H 



14 

16 



Beans(Cov) Corn Beans (Cov)Corn Beans(Cov) 
Corn Beans (Cov) Corn Beans (Cov) Corn 



Corn 
Beans ( Cov) 



30 Acres 



265 Acres of Tillable Crop Land* 

Koncrop land 206.5 Acres Permanent Place Land Pasture. 

Spoils 272 Acres Permanent Spoils Pasture, Seeded March, 1950. 



98 


98 


99 


91 


45 


46 


46 


49 


108 


105 


106 


109 


14 


16 


14 


16 


478.5 


478.5 


478.5 


478.5 



-45- 

Acres of Corn 100 95 

Acres of Oats 102 98,.^ 

Acres of Hay (36)(Les) 56 U ; 

Acres of Beans 63 16 

Acres of Pasture 478.5 478.5 

Fence: 

She fence lines are shown on the land use map by the lines. The 

area around the farm headquarters, northwest quarter of Section 26, will require 
approximately 672 rods. Woven wire, plus 2 strands of 4-pt. barb wire, and 
posts approximately 1 rod apart, are recommended for this area. The total cost 
of the material and erection is estimated to be $2.50 per rod. For the re- 
mainder of the fence, 4 strands of ^~pt. barb wire and posts 1 rod apart are sug- 
gested. The total cost of this type of construction is estimated to be $1.50 
per rod. The following breakdown for the fence is: 

1. Northeast quarter, north of haulage road 38O rod 

2. Large block of spoils 984 rod 

3. West block of spoils 620 rod 

4. Hornback area 300 rod 

2 284 rod 

5. Northwest quarter, woven wire 672 rod 

grass Waterways : 

No added cost is estimated in the Installation of the waterways be- 
cause in most instances this can be accomplished during the time the hay or 
meadow occupies the land* 

Acreages and Probable Production : 

The estimated yields that are expected on this farm are based on 
yields predicted in Illinois B-522 "How Productive are Illinois Soils." For 
the Clinton silt loam soil type under good soil management the following 
yields can be expected: Corn — 64 bushels; soybeans — 24 bushels; oats — 37 
bushels; grass-legume hay — 2.2 tons* For the first two years, 195° and 1951» 
lower yields have been used and is reflected in the Crops income. 

The acreages and probable production areas follows, 1952 being the 
year summarized: 



-46- 




Q. 

< 



I- 
Z 



o 
z 
< 



< 



o 

I- 
< 
u 



< 

-I 

u 

>- 



CO 

< 

Q- 
< 





«/> 



a H H 

< < < 

_i _i _i 

u u u 





















r* 














III 






§2 




















'.vy 



V 




-■^ J&jSSttvft >fftT>T\ , STO^ffff,^'SBg 




-47- 



Crop 



Acres 



Corn 
Oats 

Soybeans 
Ha 7- "baled 
Grass silage 

Permanent Pasture 


98 

45 
14 


Place land 
Spoils 


206.5 
272 



Estimated production 




j>er acre 


Total 


55-67 DU. 


6 446 bu. 


35 to. 


1 575 bu. 


24 bu. 


336 bu. . 

124 i.y 


2.2 T. 


5.0 T. 


390 T. 



2 l/2 acres 200 Head 
per animal of steers 

743.5 Unlt * 

*/ The second cutting of area used for grass silage is cut for hay. 

Under normal production the carrying capacity of the spoils pasture 
has been estimated to be from 2 to 4 acres per animal unit. For this area the 
carrying capacity is estimated to be one animal unit per 2 1/2 acres. At this 
rate the total pasture area should support approximately 200 head of yearling 
steers. 

Up to this point the cropping system, the land use possibilities and 
the cost of a permanent fertility program have been expounded. The next step 
is to fit the livestock program to the cropping system and to estimate Income 
and expenditures, and then the rate of earning of the capital invested. 

Livestock Enterprise : 

As stated previously the farm has a total of 478 acres of permanent 
pasture of which 272 acres is mined land. From past experiences with spoil 
bank pastures in Illinois the carrying capacity has been estimated at from 
2 to 4 acres per animal unit. The carrying capacity is estimated at 2 l/2 
acres per animal unit since these are some of the better spoils in Illinois. 
At this rate of stocking just under 200 head of steers can be handled. 

High good to choice yearling steers are recommended because this 
grade can best utilise the large amounts of pasture and roughage that are pro- 
duced. 



-48- 



Cattle feeding risks can be reduced by buying and selling wisely. 
From a study of seasonal price movements based on averages over a period of 
years, it is shown that the seasonal low for good feeder steers is in the 
fall from August to November. The seasonal high price for good fat steers 
the past years has been in the fall from August to October with September 
being the high month* Prices in a particular year may vary from the seasonal 
price due to different factors that may influence prices in any particular 
year* Thus, vary buying time and selling time with the present outlook. 

In starting this program (1950) it is recommended that about 70 head 
(2 carload) of good yearling steers be purchased in August or September, 1950, 
weighing about 55® pounds. In the fall of 1951* 200 steers should be purchased. 
The steers can utilize wastes such as cornstalks, bean fields, meadow aftermath, 
spoil pastures, etc., until approximately December 1. Up to this time the 
steers have been owned about 90 days and should weigh between 600 to 625 pounds. 

The wintering period is estimated to last until April 15# a period 

of about 140 days. Stocker cattle should be wintered sufficiently well to 

obtain normal rate of growth with little or no Improvement in condition. This 

objective is achieved when approximately 1.0 pound gain per day is made by 

yearling steers. The wintering ration recommended Is: 

Grass silage 28 pounds for 140 days 200 head 392 T. 
Mixed hay and 

straw 6 pounds for 1*K) days 200 head 84 T. 

The summer pasture is estimated to begin April 15 to 20 at which 
time the steers go on the spoil bank pasture. Good rotation management is 
necessary to keep the pastures producing well and steers to gain adequately. 
The steers will weigh about 725 pounds on April 15» and estimating the follow- 
ing monthly gains while on pasture: April, 10 pounds; Kay, 80 pounds; and 
June, 60 pounds; a total of 150 pounds. The steers will weigh 850 to 875 



-49- 

pounds by July 1. At this time they are to begin the 90 to 120 day fattening 

period. The feeding for the first 30 days at least can be started while still 

on pasture. From results obtained from grazing experiments conducted in 1948 

and 1949 the steers have gained 1 pound per day for a 180 day pasture season. 

Good 2- year-old steers should make an average daily gain of 2,5 

pounds per day while on feed. At this rate of gain they should weigh between 

1,050 to 1,100 poiuids by October 1. In an average year at this rate 200 

pounds of steers will weigh a total of 210,000 pounds. 

The fattening ration suggested is: 

30 days on pasture; 13 pounds corn-and-cob meal - Jl days - 200 head - 1,151 bu. 
60 days in dry lot; 13*5 pounds shelled corn - 6l days - 200 head - 2,9^1 bu. 

6.75 pounds mixed hay - 6l days - 200 head - hi, 2 T. 

1 pound protein sup. - 6l days - 200 head - 6.1 T. 

The total amount and cost of feed utilized is: 

January 1950 January 1951 

Estimate Estimate 

w . , Grass silage 392 T. © $6.00/T $ 2 352,00 $ 7.50 $ 2 940.00 

Winter period ^ y 8J ^ straw 84 T, © 12.00/T. 1 008.00 20.00 1 680.00 

Corn 4 092 bu. © .90 3 683. 00 1.75 7 161.00 

Fattening ^ 4l#2 T# @ 12.00/T. 500.00 20.00 824.00 

period Protein 6.1 T. © 80.00/T. 488.00 90.00 549. 00 

$ 8 031.00 $13 15^.00 

Hogs Enterprise : 

Hogs following full-fed steers can be expected to make 2 pounds gain 

per bushel of corn while the steers are fed on legume pasture and 1.5 pounds 

per bushel while on dry lot. The ratio of hogs to cattle, no extra corn fed 

to hogs is 1.3. At this rate approximately 66 hogs should follow the 200 steers. 

For simplicity in computation the 66 hogs are purchased weighing 110 pounds at 

15 cents per pound. The gains expected from the hogs: 

31 days 1,150 bu. corn fed - 2 lb. gain per bushel - 2,302 lb. or 35 lb/head 
6l days 2,941 bu. corn fed - 1.5 lb. gain per bushel - 4,411 lb. or 67 lb/head 

A total of 6,713 pounds of pork is produced by this means at no extra cost for 



-50- 

feed. 

A summary of livestock numbers and feed requirement, crop prodaction 

and disposal Is as follows: 

Grass Protein 



Livestock 




Corn 
bu. 


Oats 
"bu. 


Mixed hay 


silage 


supplement 


Beans 
bu. 


200 yearling stockeri 
200 2-year-olds 
66 hogs 


i 

4 092 

Follow 




cattle no 


84 T. 
41.2 T. 
extra feed. 


392 T. 




6.1 T. 







Total use 
Production 
For sale 
Purchase 




4 092 
6 446 
2 354 



1 575 
1 575 


125 

124 


392 

390 




6.1 


6.1 




336 
336 



The seasonal high price for grain is as follows: Corn — July; oats-~ 
April; soybeans — May. 

Farmstead Arrangement : 

In planning the farmstead an arrangement should be considered that 
provides adequate and economical units of construction and land use for maximum 
efficiency, beauty and enjoyment. The arrangement of the buildings and lots 
and the type of building construction determine to a considerable degree the 
efficiency of doing the work at the farmstead as well as the attractiveness 
of the home* 

Building Requirements : 

The values here given are very rough estimates. The physical re- 
quirements are those needed for adequate production. 

Barn (30 x 50 present now) $ 2 000.00 

Shed around barn 2 000.00 

Paved lot 2 500.00 

Feed bunks 300.00 

Crib (8« - 12.000 cu.ft., 4,200 bu. ) 2 200.00 

Silo 1 800.00 

Machine shed 1 200.00 

House 2 500.00 

Total value ...... $14 500.00 

The center of the farmstead is the barn and crib area. The space 
needed per animal is 25 sq. ft. of shed space plus 35 sq. ft. of paved lot 



-51- 

area. Thus, for 200 head of cattle 5»000 sq. ft. of shed space and 7,000 
sq. ft. of pared lot is needed. By "building a shed around the present barn 
adequate shed space can he provided. The center of the "barn can he used for 
baled hay. The area needed for 125 ton of hay is 20,000 cu. ft. Die paved 
lot should be 5 inches thick and reinforced. The estimated cost is $2,500. 
Approximately 14, 3 1 x l6 f feeding bunks with access to both sides and 
approximately 260 linear feet of hay feeding space is required. A masonry 
silo for the grass silage is recommended. The reason for grass silage is this. 
Rainy weather at first cutting time usually results in poor quality first 
cutting hay. This can be partially solved by using as much of the first cut- 
ting as needed for grass silage. Just under 400 tons can be fed. 

Approximately 12 gallons of water per head is needed daily. This 
needs to be provided only during wintering and fattening periods. Uhere is 
adequate water in the spoil bank pastures. Cattle on pasture require approxi- 
mately 2,^ pounds of salt per month, and 100 pounds in dry lot. Block salt 
is the most convenient form to use. From 20 to 22 pounds of salt per animal 
are needed or about 2 tons of block salt per cycle. 

Estimated Prices ; 

This plan was prepared for action in the spring of 1950. The prices 
used were conservative estimates of what prices might be in a declining price 
market. Actually as a result of the Korean war and the military preparedness 
programs, prices have increased. By using the physical unite, given and the 
current prices for each product the financial statement can be adjusted to 
any conditions. 

The prices used in the estimate ms.de in January, 1950, for the crops 
are as follows: Corn, 90 cents; oats, 50 cents; soybeans $1.90 per bushel; 
baled hay $12 per ton and grass silage $6 per ton. The current prices for 



-52- 

the same crops in January, 1951 » were «* follows: Corn, $1.75; oats, 95 cents; 
soybeans $3.20 per bushel; hay $20 per ton and grass silage $7.50 per ton. 
Using the 1950 estimate the total crop receipts for 1952 would be $11,055 and 
using the 1951 current price the crop receipts would be $29,257.00. 

Similarly the cost of the feed for livestock based on 195° estimates 
would be $3,360 for the wintering period plus $^»665 for the fattening period 
making an estimated total of approximately $8,031 compared to a total of 
$13,15^ by using the 1951 current price. 

The estimate made in 1950 as to what the price of good grade steers 
would be in 1952 was 20 cents per pound. Thue , it was estimated that in the 
fall of 1951, 200 steers weighing 550 pounds each should be purchased at an 
estimated total cost of $22,000. Again using the January, 1951 current price 
of approximately 30 cents per pound the total cost of these steers would be 
$33,000. 

According to Snapp (2) profits from cattle feeding usually result 
from selling the original weight of the steer for more than it cost. The 
algebraic difference between the sale and cost prices per hundredweight is 
referred to as "the margin. H The factors that determine the amount of margin 
that must be had to cover all costs are: (l) The initial weight of the cattle, 
(2) the cost per hundredweight of the cattle, (3) the cost of the gains made, 
and (4) the amount of gains made. 

By using the large amounts of grasses and legumes produced on strip-* 
mine farms it is possible to keep the cost of livestock gains relatively low. 
When light-weight, high-quality cattle are used and the cost of the gains 
kept relatively low a profit can be made even when using a zero price margin 
spread. In this estimate the purchase price is used as the selling price, 
or a zero margin price spread is used. 



-53- 



The January, 1950 estimate of the price of cattle In 1952 was 20 
cents per pound. The current January, 1951 price is approximately 3° cents 
per pound. Likewise the 195° estimate of hogs selling in 1952 was 15 cents 
per pound but the current 1951 price for hogs is approximately 20 dents per 
pound* 

Expenditures, Receipts. Net Income. Rate Earned on Capital Investment : 

The differences in prices are reflected in the two summary sheets 
presented. The first is based on the estimate made January, 1950 of what 
prices were to be in the following three years. The second is based on the 
current January, 1951 prices. Using the 195° estimates the net returns for 
capital and management for 1952 are estimated to be about $9,609 but using 
the current 1951 prices as listed the net returns for capital and management 
are $20,204. This plan shows that even in a period of lower prices it should 
be profitable to utilize the strip-mined lands. 

Using the Twenty-fourth Farm Bureau Farm Management report for farms 
averaging 340-^99 acres on which livestock is the principal enterprise, the 
Strip-Mine Farm, for the year 1952. can be rated or compared in the following 
ways: 



Strip-Mine 
Farm 


(Soil Rating 3.1.) 


12.9$ 

$ 10.03 

100.41 
33.08 
43.11 


11.99$ 
$ 16.80 
240.21 

101.90 
118.70 



1. Rate earned on investment 

2. Net Mgt. returns per acre 

3. Capital invested per acre 

4. Total ln-puts per acre 
5» Total returns per acre 

Using the current January, 1951 prices as shown in the second summary 
sheet the comparisons are as follows: 

1. Rate earned on investment 

2. Net Mgt. returns per acre 
3 # Capital invested per acre 
4. Total in-put s per acre 
5» Total returns per acre 



22.2$ 


11.99$ 


$ 24.29 


$ 28.83 


122.58 


240.21 


43.77 


101.90 


68.06 


118.70 



_54~ 

Estimate Made January, 1950 of What Prices May Be, 
in a Declining Price Period, for the Following Ohree Years 
Summary Sheet Strip-Mine Farm (7^3*5 Acres) 

Annual 

charge- off 

Items Yalue rate 1950 1951 1952 

1. Land improvement $ 5 765.00 10# $ 577 $ 577 $ 577 

2. Spoil devp. (seed & labor) 3 285.00 10# 329 329 329 

3. Access roads, etc. (bldzr) 5 000.00 12 l/2# 625 625 625 

4. Fence 5 106.00 5t 256 256 256 

5. Buildings 14 500.00 4£ 580 580 580 

6. Machinery & equipment 9 300.00 12 l/2# 1 165 1 165 1 165 

7. Int. on capital Invest. 42 956.00 $<f, 2 148 2 148 2 148 

8. Lives tock - steers (Inv) ) Tw/0 „^,, f - _*.„, 10 867(lnv)26 000 (Inv) 

steer, pur. Au«J £&£ d J? £" 8 «5 22 000 22 000 

hogs pur. ) eluded in totals 3*5 1 089 

9. Interest on livestock 5# 168 603 1 196 

10. Feed for livestock 285 * 207 8 031 

11. Interest on livestock feed 5# 210 402 

12. Labor - operator 2 200 2 200 2 200 

hired 1 500 1 500 1 500 

13. Machinery & equip. , repairs & fuel 2 5 00 2 500 2 500 

14. Seed crop-cultivated 562 384 298 

hay 53* *58 279 

15. Fertiliser 960 834 135 

16. Insurance on livestock 200 500 500 
Insurance on buildings 70 70 70 

17. Taxes© $1.75/A 1 303 1 303 1 303 

18. Miscellaneous 500 500 500 
TOTAL INPUTS $17 462 $20 949 $24 594 

RKUBHS 

Crop 11 322 9 683 11 055 

Livestock - steer sales) T - . . . . 16 905 42 000 

inventory ) rSfusS? no? !S- W 10 867 26 000 26 000 

hogs ) eluded in totals 818 2 089 

Livestock returns 10 511 21 000 

TOTAL RBTUEHS $11 322 $20 194 $32 055 

let returns for management - 3 128 - 755 7 *6l 

Plus capital charge 2 148 2 148 2 148 

HIT RETURNS FOR CAPITAL AND MANAGEMENT .... - "555 +1 393 +9 609 

The capital investments for this farm are: 

Land improvements $ 5 765 

Spoils development 3 285 

Access roads, etc. (development) 5 000 

Fence 5 106 

Buildings 14 500 

Machinery 9 300 

Livestock 23 089 

Feed and seed 8 608 

TOTAL CAPITAL INVESTKBN? $74,653 



-55- 
Bstimate Using Current January, 1951 Prices for 1951 and 1952 
Summary Sheet Strip-Mine Farm (743*5 Acres) 



Items 

1. Land Improvement 

2» Spoil devp. (seed, etc*) 

3* Access roads 

4. Fence 

5* Buildings 

6. Machinery & equipment 

7. Int. on capital investment 

8. Livestock - steers (Inv) ) 

steers pur. Aug. ) 
hogs pur. ) 
9* Interest on livestock 

10. Feed for livestock 

11. Interest on livestock feed 

12. Labor • operator 

hired 

13. Machinery A equip., repairs & 

14. Seed crop-cultivated 

hay 

15. Fertiliser 

16 • Insurance on livestock 
Insurance on buildings 

17. Taxes ® $1.75/ A 

18. Miscellaneous 



Value 

$ 5 765.00 
3 285.00 
5 000.00 
5 106.00 

14 500.00 
9 300.00 

42 956*oo 



Annual 

charge-off 

rate 

10# 
10£ 
12 l/2# 

5* 
4* 

12 l/2# 
5* 



Included to show 
volume; not in- 
cluded in totals 



5* 

5i 



1251 

$ 577 
329 
625 
256 

580 

165 

148 

12 250 

33 000 

46o 

959 

6 287 

314 

2 200 



1 
2 



fuel 



1 
2 



1 

1 



500 
500 
384 
458 
834 
500 
70 

303 
500 



TOTAL IHPUTS $32 469 



RETUBHS 

Crop 

Livestock ~ steer sales) included to show 
inventory ) volume; not in- 
hogs ) eluded in totals 

Livestock returns 

TOTAL RETURNS • 

Net returns for management 

Plus capital charge 

SET RETURNS FOB CAPITAL AHD MANAGB4ENT . . 



17 398 
20 580 
39 000 

1 090 
13 960 

fcl 358 
- 1 131 

2 148 
+ 1 017 



The capital Investments for this farm using January, 1951 prices are: 

Land Improvements $ 5 765 

Spoils development 3 285 

Access roads, etc* (development) 5 000 

Fence 5 106 

Buildings 14 500 

Machinery 9 300 

Livestock 34 452 

Feed and seed 13 731 

TOTAL CAPITAL INVESTMENT* $91 139 



$ 



1 
2 



577 
329 
625 
256 

580 

165 

148 

39 000 

33 000 

1 452 

1 806 

13 154 

658 

200 

500 

500 

384 

458 

834 

500 

70 

303 

500 



2 

1 
2 



1 

1 



$32 547 



19 257 

63 000 

39 000 

2 798 

$50 603 

+18 056 

2 148 

+20 204 



-56- 

There has been no value placed on the land In the above calculations 

mainly for the reason that the total cost of the land to the company has been 

entirely amortized in the cost of mining. Any value placed on this land will, 

of course, reduce the net profits expected. A detailed outline of the grain 

and livestock program to be followed for the three years, 1950 to 1952, is 

presented in Appendix A. 

A LIST OF REFERENCE MATERIAL THAT IS HELPFUL IN WORKING UP A FARM PLAN INCLUDES 
THE FOLLOWING: 

1. Soil Report for County - Illinois Agricultural Experiment Station. 

2. How Productive are the Soils of Central Illinois. Illinois Agricultural 
Experiment Station Bulletin 522. 19^7. 

3. A Guide for the Management of Soils, Field Crops, and Pastures in Illinois. 
Illinois Agricultural Experiment Station and Soil Conservation Service, 
USDA. January, 1950. 

4. Illinois Agricultural Handbook. Extension Service in Agriculture and Home 
Economics. University of Illinois College of Agriculture. 19**9» 

5. Planning the Farm Business. University of Illinois College of Agriculture, 
Extension Service. 19^7. 

6. Planning the Illinois Farmstead for Efficiency, Health and Enjoyment. 
Extension Service, University of Illinois College of Agriculture. 19^6* 

7. Illinois Farm Economics, Extension Service, Department of Agricultural 
Economics, University of Illinois College of Agriculture. May, 19^7» 

8. Tenth Annual Report of Feeder Cattle. Illinois Agricultural Experiment 
Station. August, 19^9. 

9. Buying Feeder Cattle by Walter J. Wills, Department of Agricultural 
Economics, University of Illinois College of Agriculture, A.E. 2626. May, 
19^9. 

10. Suggestions for Increasing Labor Efficiency Emergency Farm Labor Program. 
College of Agriculture, University of Illinois, FL 100. January, 19^5* 

11. Midwest Farm Handbook, Iowa State College Press. November, 19^9. 

12. First, Second and Third Annual Reports of Work on a Cooperative Investigation 
Conducted by University of Illinois, Agricultural Experiment Station and 
Illinois Coal Strippers Association. 19^7, 19**8 and 19^9. 

13. High Quality Forage by Dr. G. Bohstedt, Department of Animal Husbandry, 
University of Wisconsin. 



-57- 

14* Annual Reports of the Farm Bureau Farm Management Service, Department of 
Agricultural Economics, University of Illinois, College of Agriculture. 
Current years* 

FUTURE PLANS AND DISCUSSION 

Many of the phases of the project that are now in progress will be 
continued or expanded* These will include seedlngs of species that have given 
indication of value and require further study, expansion of spoil type studies, 
continuation of soil infiltration work, forage yield measurements, animal gains, 
analysis for chemical composition, etc* 

There has been a marked change in the thinking and action programs 
of member companies in the problem of utilizing the strip-mined lands* It 
should be repeated that there is no one method of reclamation that is the best 
or that will solve all the problems* Rather several methods when forcibly put 
into effect demonstrate that the areas are productive and can be a profitable 
financial holding* 

SUMMARY 

Based on soil reaction or pH and available nutrient content the 
strip-mined lands in Illinois can be classified as being potentially excellent 
for the production of forage crops* Due to the heterogeneity of the soil 
material thorough sampling and testing should be done before using any area* 
In several areas of Illinois the physical and chemical nature of the overburden 
is such that grading appears to be feasible* Studies on soil structure and on 
the growth of forage further substantiate this* 

Grasses and legumes can be established on most of the strip-mined 
lands in Illinois* The chemical composition of the forage produced is as 
high or higher than average in the essential nutrients, protein, phosphorus, 
calcium and potassium. The three-year average daily gain of steers that grazed 
the forage growing on strip-mined pastures was 1*24 pounds compared to 1*19 



-58- 

pounds for the control steers that grazed on unmined lands* 

The most concentrated and continued use of mined lands can he made 
by incorporating the mined land with surrounding farm land into a well 
organized farm unit. Such use is shown to he quite profitable even in a period 
of lower prices* 

Bibliography 

1* Kohnke, H* The reclamation of coal mine spoils* Advances In Agronomy, 
Vol, II, 1950. 

2. Snapp, B* B. Beef Production* John Wiley & Sons, Inc., lew York* 19^8. 

3* Vaksman, S* A* Principles of Soil Microbiology* Die Williams and 
Wilkins Company, Baltimore, Maryland* 1927* 



AGRONOMIC LAND USE RESEARCH ON THE MINED AREAS 
OF TEE STRIPPED COAL LANDS OF ILLIFOIS 

APPENDIX A 



-1- 

APPENDIX A: DETAILED FIELD AND CROPPING PLAN FOR 3- YEAR PERIOD (1950-52) 

1950 FIELD AND CROPPING PLAN 

SEE LAND USE MAP FOR FIELD ARRANGEMENT 

Fid. (l) 36 Acres Cost/A 

Seed to oats 1 1/2 bu/A @ 70 cents $ 1.05 

(Clinton oatt) 

Legume-grass seed 7.05 

Alfalfa 6 @ .65 $3.90 

Red CI. k ® .60 2.40 

Tim. 3 @ .25 .75 

Fertilizer 100 lb. 0-20-20 & 60.00/T 3.00 

$ 11.10 x 36 - $ 399.60 

Limestone and rock phosphate should he applied before 
seeding. Cost figured as one lump sum in summary - not 
figured extra here. If Is. and phosphate is not applied 
do not seed clover mix. 

YIELDS - 35 bu/A expected (unless oats too late) 

1260 bu. x 55 cents/bu. - $ 693.00 

Fid. (2) 38 Acres 

Plant to corn (corn and beans now) 

9 lb/A @ 20 cents/lb. $ 1.80 

Nitrogen (top-dress) 200 lb. Ammonium 

nitrate per acre - $3.80/cvt. 7«60 

$ 9.40 x 38A -$ 357.40 

YIELDS - 55 bu/A x 38A = 2090 bu. 

Estimate receipt - 1.10 per bu. 

price support $2 299.00 

Fid. (3) 34 Acres 

Seed Beans (Lincoln or Hawkeye) 

2 bu/A & 2.30/bu. $ 156.*K) $ 156.^0 

YIELDS - 24 bu/A x 34/ A - 8l6 bu. 

Estimate price - $1.90 at harvest time $1 550.40 

Aoply Is. and rhosnhate after plowing before seeding. 



-2- 



1950 PLANS (CONT'D) 

Fid. (4) 35 Acres 

To Corn 

9 lb/A ® 20 cents $1.80 

Nitrogen 200 lb. NH^NO^ 7*60 

$ 9.40 x 35A - $ 329.00 

YIELDS - 55 ou/A i 35A - 1925 bu. © 1.10 - $ 2 117.50 

Fid. (5) 36 Acres 

Seed to Oats 

Seed 1 1/2 bu/A © 70 cents $1.05 

20 lb. Lespedeza No. 1960*4- © .09 1.80 

$ 2.85 x 36A - $ 102.60 

YIELDS - 35 bu/A x 36A - 1260 bu. x .55 $ 693-00 

Lest). Hay 1.5T/A © $15.00/Ton 

54 Ton x $15 $ 810.00 

Total Receipts - $ 1 503.00 

CLASS III LAND - RED 

Fid. A. 11 Acres (Estimate) 

Plant to corn (Do not plow thru the gullies) 
9 lb/ A © 20 cents $ 1.80 

Top-dress Nitrogen 200 lb. NH^NO^ 

3. 80 cwt. 7.60 

$ 9.40 x 11A - $ 103.1*0 
YIELDS - 40 bu/A 11A = 440 bu. © $1.10 - $ 484.00 



Fid. Bi and B2 - Treat as one field this year. Pull old saplings, etc. and 

get ready for beans 

15 Acres 

60 lb/A © 6 cents/lb. - $3. 60/ A x 15 $ 54.00 

YIELDS - 20 bu/A 15A = 300 bu A $1.90 - $ 570.00 



-3- 



1950 PLANS (C0NT l D) 

Fid, C-j^ & 2 & 3 30,5 Acres 

Treat as one field. La and phosphate this 
spring if possible. 

Seed to oats Cost/ A 

Oats - 1 1/2 bu/A ® .70 $ 1.05 

Legume mix 7*05 

Alfalfa 6 & .65 - $3.90 

Red CI. 4 © .60 - 2.40 

Tim. 3 ® .25 .75 

fertilizer 100 Id. 0-20-20 @ $60/T 3.00 

I $ 11. 10/ a x 30. 5A - $333.55 

YIELDS - 35 W A 

x 30. 5A « 1,067.5 *u. ® .55 $587.13 

Bale all oat straw to use for winter roughage and bedding 

BOTTOMLAND ( GREEN ) 

Fid I 14 Acres 

Seed to Beans - 2 bu/A $ 4.60 x 14/ A - $ 64.40 

YIELDS - 24 bu/A x 14a = 336 bu. @ $1.90 - $638.40 

(Apply Ls and rock phosphate as needed ahead of seeding) 

Fid II 16 Acres 

Pull Saplings - prepare field 

Plant to corn 

9 lb/Corn @ 20 cents $ 1.80 

200 lb. NH^N03 ^ top or slde dressln g) 7.60 

$ 9.20 x 16/A - $147.20 
YIELDS - 50 bu/A x l6A - 800 bu. » $1.10/bu. - $880.00 



-4~ 



1950 LIVESTOCK PROGEAM 

Buy 70 head of steers from Aug, 15-30 @ 23 cents lb, 
weighing 550 lb. 

70 head - $126.50/head $ 8,855.00 

Turn on pastures, after meadow math., bean fields, cornstalk, etc, 

Aug. 15 - Dec. 1 - 105 days - weight about 600 lb. Pec. 1, 

Winter Feeding Peri od 

Dec, 1 to April 15 - about 135 days. 

Feed so that they gain about 1 lb, per day or so they will weigh 
approximately 725-750 1°» when they go on pasture. 

Viinter patlcn 

16 lb, hay per day - mixed legume - 
x70 

1120 lb, per day for herd x 135 day* = 75»6 tons 

x $15,00/ ton 

Total cost of hay - $ 1,13^.00 

About $285 of this bill until Dec. 1, - rest 1951 year's cost figures. 
About 18 tons of the 75.6 tons will be used in 1950, 



See Summary Sheet for total expenses for each enterprise. The inventory value 
carried to 1951 on the steers is based on 625 lb. weights at 23 cents per 
pound. 



-5- 

i95i crop plans (corr 1 !)) 



BOTTOM 



I 14 Acres 

Corn 

9 lb/A © 20 cents $1.80 x 14 $ 25.20 

YIELD: 55 bu/A x 14- 770 btu © 95 cents $ 731.50 

II 16 Acres 

Beans 

1.5 bu/A © 1,90 2.85 x 16 $ ^5.60 

Ryeseed 1.5 bu. © 1.25 1.87 * 16 30.00 

$ 75.60 

YIELD: 24 bu/A x 16a - 384 bu. © 1.90 $ 729.60 

19 5 1 

Instead of cutting the hay for hay as estimated - cut 



Fid 1 for silage - 8 ton/A 36A = 288 tons 
Fid C x and 2 silage " 20 - 160 



448 tons - ^92 tons needed 



Hay needed - 84 tons 

Hay produced - Lespedeza - 5* to^s 

Bal€:ci oat straw will make the rest of the forage 
needed. 

Yields and receipts should vary but little from estimates so nc changes are 
made. I believe this method of harvesting the hay is a gr^at improvement in 
quality of feed than relying en hay only. 



-6- 



1951 FIELD AM) CROPPING PLAN 



Fid (1) 36 Acres 

Hay 



YIELD: 2.2 tons x 36 = 79 tons © $14.00 $1 106.00 



Fid (2) 38 Acres 

Seed to oats Cost/A 

2 bu/A © 70 cents $ 1,40 

Grass-Legume seed 6 o 20 

Alfalfa 6 e .60 3.60 

Eed CI. J* .50 2.00 

Tim. 3 © .20 .60 

Fertilizer - 100 lb. 0-20-20 © 3.0 3.00 

$10.60/A x 36 - $ 402.80 

YIELD: 35 bu/A x 38/ A = 1330 bu. 8 .55 - 731.50 

Fid (3) Jk Acres 

Oats 

2 bu/A $ l.fcO 

Lespedeza seed 9 cents/lb. <- 20 lb. 1.80 
Fertilizer 0-20-20 3.00 

$ 6.20 x 34A - $ 210.80 

YIELD: Oats - 35 bu/A x 34A - 1190 bu. • .55 - $ 654.50 
Lesp. Hay - 1.5T/A x 34 - 51 tons © $14 - 714.00 

$1 368.50 

Fid (4) 35 Acres 

Corn 

Seed 9 lb/20 cents $ 1.80 

Fertilizer 7.6O 

$ 9.40/A x 35A - $ 329.00 
YIELD: 45 bu/A x 35A - 1575 bu. © .95 - $1 496.25 



-7- 

1951 CROP PLAITS (COITT^) 

Tld (5) 36 Acres 

Corn 

Seed 9 lb/A ® 20 cents $ 1*80 

200 lb, HH4HO3 3. 80 cvt. 7.60 

$ 9.40/A x 36A = $ 338.40 

YIELD: 55 bu/A 36A 1980 bu. • .95 $1 881.00 

CLASS III (Sf4) Land 

Tide A - 11) 

Bi - 7) 26 Acres 
B 2 - 8) 

Oats seed 2 bu/A $ 1.40 

Hay seed 6.20 

Alfalfa 6 .60 3.60 

Red CI. k .50 2.00 

Timothy 3 .20 .60 

fertiliser 3.00 

Total Cost $ 10.60 x 26a - $ 275.60 

YIELD: 35 bu/A * 26a = 910 bu. • .55 % 500.50 

C 1 10 Acres 

Corn 

1.80/A Seed (9 lb/A @ 20 cents) $ 18.00 
YIELD: 55 bu/A x 10 ■ 550 bu. © 95 cents $ 522.50 

^2 \ 20 Acres 



C 3 > 



Hay 
YIELD: 2.2 tons per acre x 20 = 44 tons © $14.00 $ 616.00 



-8- 

1951 LIVESTOCK PLAN 

The 70 steers weigh 625 lb. each Jan. 1, and are to weigh 725-750 oy April 
15* The remaining winter ration and cost is: 

57 tons of hay • $14.00 - $ 798.00 

Corn and cob meal - 484.00 

Total Cost $ 1 282.00 

On April 15 they will weigh an estimated 725 lb. each. 

PASTURE 

J*rom April 15 until July 10 - on pasture alone. 

If they gain 10 lb. each in April* 80 lb. in May, 60 lb. in June and 10 lb. 
to July 10, at that date they will weigh about 875 pounds. 

f ATTESTING PERIOD 

Teed the steers on pasture nearest the barn area. If fed from July 10 to 
Sept. 30 - 82 days, and if they gain 2*5 lb. per day, they should weigh 1,080 lb* 
by Sept. 30. Estimate they will average 1,050 lb. and sell for 23 cents (purchase 
price - no margin). 

The gross receipts on 73*500 lb* of beef will be - $16 905.00 

FEED REQUIRED DURING FATTENING PROGRAM: 

Hay - 7# x 70 x 82 a 20 tons of leg. hay » $14.00 - $ 280.00 

Shelled Corn-15# x 70 x 82 s 1435 bu. corn ® $ 1.00 bu.- 1 435.00 

Protein Sup - 1# x 70 x 82 ■ 2.87 tons » $80.00 - 229.60 

$1 944.60 

Sept. 1, 1951 - "buy 200 head hi good steers weighing 550 lb. ® 20 cents. 

Clean up period until December 1, 1951 

31 days wintering on: 

28# Grass-leg. silage - 86.8 tons © $6.00 $ 520.30 

6# Hay - mixed (A straw) - 18.6 tons • 12.00 232. 50 

Total $ 7r?09 

Total feed Costs $3 979.90 

CLOSING INVENTORY 
Steers weigh 650 lb. d 20 cents (no margin) x 200 s $ 26 000.00 



-9- 



By letting hogs run with the steers while on feed, some of the waste 
corn can he salvaged. 

Buy 23 hogs weighing 100 Id. for $15/cwt. - $3^5.00 cost 



By Octoher hogs will weigh 23? lb. each @ 15 cents 

5^51 lb. 817. 65 

(See Summary Sheet) 



-io~ 



1952 FIELD AND CROPPING PLAN 

Jld. (1) 36 Acres Corn 

Cost $1.?5/A x 36 Acres $63.00 

Yield 67 bu/A x 36 Acres = 2,412 bushels ® .90 - $2 170.80 

Fids. (2) A (3) 72 Acres Hay cut for grass silage 

Yield 5 Tons/A - 36O Tons ® $6.00/Ton - $2 160 

(1st cutting only for silage) 
2nd cutting, 72 acres yielding 3/^ T/A - 
54 x 12 648 



$2 808 



Fid. (4) 35 Acres Oats 



2 bu/A ® .60 $1.20 x 35 $42.00 

Grass & legume seed 6. 20 x 35 217.00 

Alfalfa 6 60 

Bed CI. 4 50 

Timothy 3 20 
Fertilizer 100 lb/A 
0-20-20 3-00 x 35 105.00 

Yield 35 bu/A 35 Acres - 1,225 bu. © .50 612.50 

Fid. (5) 36 A Corn 

Seed $1.75/A 36 Acres $63.00 

Yield 67 bu/A 36 Acres - 2,412 bu. ® .90 $2,170.80 

Class III (red) 

A) 36 Acres - Cut 6 Acres for silage 1st cut 5 T/A 

B) - 30 T. Silage ® $6.00 - $180.00 

C) Hay - second cut on 6 Acres. Total of 4 Tons 
Hay 30 A x 2.2 T/A 66 Tons 

70 Tons @ 12.00 - 840.00 

$ 1 020.00 

C^ Oats, 10 Acres 

Seed $1.20 x 10 - $12.00 

Legume seed 6,20 x 10 - 62.00 

Fertilizer 3.00 x 10 30.00 

$104.00 

Yield: 35 bu/A 10 Acres - 350 bu. x .50 - $175.00 

C2 Corn 10 Acres 

Seed $1,75 x 10 - $17.50 

Yield: 55 bu/A x 10 - 550 bu. • .90 - $495.00 



-11- 

1952 PLANS (CONT'D) 

Bottomland 

I 1** Acres Beans 

Seed $3.65/A x W - $51.10 

Eye CoTer Crop 1.50/A x 14 21,00 

$72.10 

Yield: 24 bu/A 14 Acres - 336 bu. © $1.90 - $638.40 

II Corn 16 Acres 

Seed $1.75/ A x 16 $23.00 

Yield: 67 bu/A. 16 Acres - 1,072 bu. © .90 - $964.80 

1952 LIVESTOCK PLAN 

Steers weigh 650 lb. rained at $26,000 on January 1. Ration for wintering con- 
tinued from December 31, 1951 • 

28 lb, grass silage 305.2 Tons $6.00 - $1 831.20 

6 lb. hay 65.4 Ions 12.00 - 734.80 

COST $2 616.00 

Summer Pasture - April 15, Weight 725-750 
Gain April 10 
Nay 80 
June 60 

150 pounds 150 

$875 July 1 

Fattening 

Feed 30 days on pasture 

13 lb. corn and cob meal, 31 days - 200 head - 1,151 bushels 

60 days dry lot 

Corn 13.5 61 days x 200 head 2,941 bu. 

Protein 1 61 days x 200 head 6.1 Tons 

Mixed hay 6.75 61 days x 200 head 41.2 Tons 

Total Teed and Cost (Winter & Fattening) 

Corn 4,092 bu. © .90 $3 683 

Hay 106.6 © $12.00 1 279.20 

Grass silage 305.2 © 6.00 1 831.20 

Protein 6.1 © 80.00 T. 48 8.00 

$7 281.40 $7 281.40 

Sell steers October 1 weighing 1,050 lb. for 20 cents. 210,000 lb. of beef - 42,000 

September 1, purchase 200 more steers (hi-goods) 

550 lb. © 20 - $22,000 
Clean up period until December 1, 1952 
31 days wintering 

28 lb. grass silage 86.8 T $6.00 $520 

6 lb. Hay A straw 18.6 T 12.00 230 

$750 750.00 

TOTAL FEED COSTS $8 031.*»O 



< 



Closing Inventory, December 31, 1952 

Steers 65O lb. © 20 cents - x 200 — $26,000 



-12- 



Hay Enterprise 1952 : Hogs running with the steers while fattening is a worth- 
while project. For simplicity following estimates are made*. 

Buy 66 hogs weighing 110 Id. each to 15 cents — $1 089.00 
By Oct. 1 they will weigh 212 lb. each ® 15 cents 2 099.00 

See summary sheet for explanation. 



SUMMARY OF CROP YIELDS AMD EXPENSES 



Figld^ 

(1) 36a Corn 
(5) 36A Corn 
62 10 Acres 
II 16 Acres 



(4) 35A Oats 
C x 10A 



I 14A Beans 



Yield 

2 412 bu. 

2 412 bu. 

550 bu. 

1 072 bu. 

6 446 bu. 

1 225 

350 

1 575 

336 



January 1950 
estimate of 
receipts 


Seed 
Crops 


Cost 

Legumes 


Fertilizer 


$2 170.80 

2 170. 80 

495.00 

964.80 

$5 801.40 


$ 63. oc 

63.OO 
17.50 
28.00 






$ 612.00 
175.00 


42.00 
12.00 


$217.00 
62.00 


$105.00 
30.00 


$ 737.00 








638.40 


72.10 







$297.60 $279.00 



78A Silage 

72A Hay 
36A 



390 Tons 

2 * ons L $1 488 
70 Tons) 

"l24 Tons 



2 3^.00 



$11 054. 80 



AFG:lap 
2-7-51 



y 



US//**. 



r\<zr\ 




extension Service in Agriculture 

" and Home F« 



,pjr. 



THE POTENTIALITIES OF REVEGETATING AND UTILIZING 
AGRONOMIC SPECIES ON STRIP MINED AREAS 



IN ILLINOIS 



Kfc 






A PROGRESS REPORT 
COVERING THE FIFTH YEAR OF WORK ON A COOPERATIVE INVESTIGATION 

CONDUCTED BY 
UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS, AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION 

AND 
ILLINOIS COAL STRIPPERS ASSOCIATION 



NOTE 

The agreement covering this investigation provides that:— "No account of a co- 
operative research project shall be published by the sponsor or by any other agency, ex- 
cept upon approval of the division of the University, or head of the department in which 
the work is being done." 

Permission for the reproduction of this report has been granted with the understand- 
ing that it is to be released for the confidential information of members of Illinois Coal 
Strippers Association only, and not to be quoted or released for publication. 






Telephone CEntral 6-7044 

ILLINOIS COAL STRIPPERS ASSOCIATION 

307 NORTH MICHIGAN AVENUE 
CHICAGO 1, ILLINOIS 

WILLIAM H. COOKE A. J. CHRISTIANSEN 

PRESIDENT SECRETARY-TREASURER 

CARL T. HAYDEN FOREWORD 

VICE PRESIDENT 

To Members of Illinois Coal Strippers Association 

Gentlemen: 

On February 1, 1947, Illinois Coal Strippers Association 
entered into an agreement with the Agricultural Experiment Station, 
University of Illinois, covering a project of cooperative research 
into the possibilities of revegetating and utilizing grasses and 
legumes on strip mined areas for stock range and other purposes. 

This project was originally set up on an estimate that it 
would require five years of research in order to arrive at sound 
conclusions. It has, however, been extended for three more years 
and is now entering upon its sixth year. A progress report cover- 
ing the first year of operation issued on March 19, 1948 dealt 
principally with the proposed scope and plan of attack on the prob- 
lem; a survey of spoil bank soils found throughout the state, and 
preliminary reports on a number of seeding projects. The second 
report was issued on March 15, 1949; the third report issued on 
March 6, 1950 and the fourth report, issued on March 1, 1951, pre- 
sented further information on spoil bank soil materials, and com- 
parisons of such materials with surface soils found on adjoining 
land; the adaptation of various forage species to spoil bank soils; 
the results of preliminary studies of comparative gains made by 
animals pastured on spoil banks with those pastured on undisturbed 
blue grass and highly improved grass-legume pasture and the utili- 
zation of stripped land for pasture. 

The report here presented covers the fifth year of opera- 
tion. It is expected that a consolidated final report, covering 
the first five years of the program, will be made some time during 
1952. 

The studies to be made during the next three years will 
carry on the uncompleted work of the present research program and, 
in addition, will include several other phases of the strip mining 
problems dealing with grading, types of overburden, compaction, 
drainage, organic matter content, pasture carrying capacities, 
pasture management, weed and brush control, etc., and a report will 
be issued each year as the program progresses. 



Secretary 
April 1, ]952 







*TI 



r«c . 










AGRONOMY PROJECT 



NUMBER: 
TITLE: 

OB J ECT : 



1003 « Fifth Annual Report* 

Agronomic Land Use Research on the Mined Areas 
of the Stripped Coal Lands of Illinois. 

The objectives of the project are to invest!*- 
gate the potentialities of reveg eta ting 
and utilizing agronomic species on the strip- 
mined areas in Illirois 



LEADERS; 



A. L« Lang, J. A. Jackobs, J. N„ Spaeth, and 
R. R. Snapp. 



V3- 






10 



tn 

i 



Advisory Committee: - 

Dean H. P. Rusk 

M. B. Russell 

P. C. Bauer 

J. C. Hackleraan 

J, N. Spaeth 

A. J, Christiansen 

Louis S. Weber 

Agronomist — Alten F, Grandt. 



T> 



AGRONOMIC LAND USE RESEARCH ON THE MINED AREAS 
OP THE STRIPPED COAL LANDS OF ILLINOIS 
by Alten F. Grandti/ 

The fifth annual report of progress on Agronomy Project 1003, covering 
the investigations of the potentialities of revegetating and utilizing agronomic 
species on strip-mined lands is herewith presented. This is a cooperative re- 
rearch project of the University of Illinois Agricultural Experiment Station 
and the Illinois Coal Strippers Association. 

This project was initiated in 19^+7 » At that time it was estimated that 
at least 5 years would he necessary to thoroughly explore the subject and to 
gather facts that would he essential to develop the highest potential uses of 
the mined lands from an agronomic viewpoint. As the result of past research it 
has been shown that much of the strip— mined land in Illinois can he and is being 
reclaimed with agronomic species, frore research is necessary to study basic 
problems that have arisen. The Illinois Coal Strippers Association has expressed 
the desire to continue the project for at least 3 years longer. 

Experimental research is being carried on at 25 different locations in 
14 counties. Approximately 50 acres on these locations have been used for 
experimental plots in this project. Figure 1 shows the general locations where 
these plots have been established. 
SOIL INVESTIGATIONS: 

Soil Tests of Strip-Mine Soil Material: 

As of December 31 t 1951. 1,^84 soil samples have been collected from 
the experimental plot areas and all have been tested by the University of Illinois 
Soil Testing Laboratory. Table 1 shows the average amounts of plant nutrients 
found in the soil material. The overall average of these tests shows the acidity 



Special Research First Assistant, Soil Fertility, Department of Agronomy, University 
of Illinois, Agricultural Experiment Station, Urbana* 

The author acknowledges with thanks the assistance, advice and encouragement re- 
ceived from L. S. Weber, Land Use Engineer, Illinois Coal Strippers Association, 
and H. J, Snider, Assistant Professor of Soil Fertility, Illinois Agricultural 
Experiment Station, in conducting these investigations. 



-2- 



AGRONOMY DEPARTMENT, UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS, URBANA 



«»• 



Coal Companies 
S oil t Hern Illinois 





1- Sahara 
2- Delta 



pf-rof sy the-V/ l iiiamp on 
3-f.f. ElkriUe 
4-pJl. Fidelity 
5-Pyfamid 
6- Southwestern 
|3-6etinole 
7- 



WINNEBAGO 



m *OCK ISLAND 

rfiivest BadiantTM^c^ — 



£*§. 



8-Sdlar 



9- 



4drgan 



• £. Buckheai 
,E. Cuba 
T. Piatt 
irriev 
!|5-M.E. fiapatee-Fa|rmi] 
:|6-ilittle John 




Jo 'them Illinois 



O-tittle Sisti 



4 



ern Illinois 



BOONE 



M<-NENPf 



LAKE. 



DEKALB 



KANE \COOH 



KENDAL L 



DUPAGE 



WILL 



6NUNDY 

18 

*.j.9 .ZOtKKAKET 



] ?- H.E # Sheffield 

1 3- (orris 
3 ?- lor them 

2 Vfilmington 
2 Wlorthern 



IROQUOIS 



Ea stern Illinois 
$2 --^yrshire-Harma titan 

ILLINOIS 

XALt-STATVTt MILtS 



Vt»miLIOH 



M379 



Location of Experimental Plots on Strip-Mined Coal Lands in Illinois 

(Pig. 1) 



-3- 



Table 1.— Soil Analysis of Spoil Bank Material 







Number of 


Acidity 


Phosphorus 


Potassium 




Plot locations 


County 


samples 


average 


average 


average 


Note 








.pHS/ 


ib.sy 


lb JU 




Southern Illinois 














Sahara 


Saline 


54 


4.5 


90 


169 


Shale and S.S, 
rock 


Delta 


Williamson 


65 


6.3 


92 


134 




Forsythe-William- 














son 


Williamson 


23 


6.3 


178 


169 


(Local acid 
spots 


Truax, Elkville 


Jackson 


55 


6.3 


117 


173 


(Frequent acid 


U.S. Fidelity 


Perry 


81 


6.6 


155 


208 


(spots 


Pyramid 


Perry 


65 


7.3 


93 


160 




Southwestern 


Randolph 


34 


7.3 


82 


138 




Seminole 


St. Clair 


10 


7.6 


126 


168 


*Lofi&aal 


Midwest Radiant 


St. Clair 


175 


7.1 


116 


131 


* mm wv O 9C» m* 


Subtotal and averages 


562 


6.6 


116.3 


156.3 




Western Illinois 














Solar 


Schuyler 


12 


6.8 


171 


224 




Key 


Pulton 


16 


7.6 


107 


103 




Morgan 


Pulton 


10 


7.1 


178 


230 




Little Sister 


Pulton 


42 


7.5 


173 


190 




U.E. Buckheart 


Pulton 


48 


7.6 


112 


133 




U.S. Cuba 


Pulton 


48 


7.5 


150 


160 




T.T. Piatt 


Pulton 


114 


7.8 


146 


149 




Fairview 


Pulton 


54 


6.7 


144 


172 




Midland Electric 


Fulton-Knox 


155 


7.2 


156 


164 




Little John 


En ox 


87 


6.9 


174 


192 




M.S. Atkinson 


Henry 


38 


7.3 


174 


288 




Subtotal and averages 


624 


7.3 


153 


173 




Northern Illinois 















M.E. Sheffield Bureau 
Northern Illinois Grundy-Will 
Morris Grundy 

Wilmington Will 
Northern Illinois Kankakee 



89 


7.4 


152 


217 


Shaly 


87 


6.9 


142 


192 


Shaly 


28 


3.1 


84 


144 


Highly acid 


32 


7.6 


56 


170 


(Compact and 


40 


7.6 


110 


184 


(plastic 



Subtotal and averages 



276 



6.9 



125 



191 



Eastern Illinois 
Harmattan Vermilion 



Total and averages 



22 



1,484 



6.7 



6.97 



58 



132 



201 



171 



(Compact and 
plastic; red- 
dish material 
high in sand) 



*/uH- 



pH - 7.0 neutral; P - 92 lb. /A, high; K ~ 150-500 lb./A, high. 






or pH to be 6*97 or nearly neutral, the available phosphorus content to "be 132 
pounds per acre and the arailable potassium content to be 1?1 pounds per acre* 
One hundred thirty-seven soil samples vere taken and tested during the 1951 
season* The averages remained practically the same as reported in 1950 o 

In addition to the samples taken from the plot areas over 400 field 
samples have been taken. The results obtained have been nearly identical with 
the averages obtained from the plot areas* 

The soil tests show that a very large percentage of strip-mined lands 
In Illinois is satisfactory for the production of legumes and grasses „ let wide 
variations often occur within relatively small areas. Therefore, it should be 
reemphasized that when contemplating a use for a particular area of strip-mined 
land, thorough sampling and testing are very important* 

The value of soil tests for phosphorus on strips-mined land has been 
questioned. The assumption of the criticism is that soil tests are not a true 
measure of phosphate availability on soils with high pH values. Since, especially 
in western Illinois, the pH at several locations averages over 7*5. this criticism 
needs clarification* The soil test for phosphorus on this high pH soil reads 
very high and indicates adequate phosphorus availability* In fertility studies, 
legumes have shown no stand or yield response to applications of a complete 
fertilizer (8-8-8) at the rate of 500 to 750 pounds an acre* Good prolific stands 
of legumes have been obtained without any added fertilizer* Therefore, it is 
assumed that the legumes are getting adequate phosphorus from the soil material* 
On the other hand grasses, while giving excellent response to nitrogen fertilizer* 
have given very little or no further response when additional phosphate has been 
applied* 

Up to this time major emphasis of soil tests has been placed on soil 



reaction or pH and the available phosphorus and potassium con ten t c However, the 
importance of trace elements In strip-mined soil material has frequently been 
questioned. For example, boron is one of the trace elements that is occasionally 
lacking in farm soils. Legumes, especially alfalfa, are particularly sensitive 
to a deficiency of boron (9)* The primary effect of boron fertilizer on legumes 
is to increase the quality of forage. On soils extremely deficient in available 
boron, an Increase in forage yield is noted. Boron is also quite efficient in 
Increasing the seed set of alfalfa and other legumes. 

Sight soil samples taken from graded areas in western Illinois were 
analysed for the available boron content by the Soil Testing Laboratory at the 
University of Illinois, The results obtained are listed in Table 2, 

Table 2,~«Special Soil Test Report for Available Boron 



Company 


County 


PH 


Available 

phosphorus 


Available 
potassium 


Available 

boron 


Boron 
rating 


U,E, Buckheart 


Fulton 


7.4 
7.2 


176 
152 


142 
178 


10,0 
6,0 


Very high 
High 


T,T. Watt 


Fulton 


7.3 
7.4 


204+ 
204* 


254 

224 


7.0 
10,0 


Very high 
Very high 


Falrview 


Fulton 


7.2 
7.4 


204+ 

204* 


208 
224 


10,0 
4,0+ 


Very high 
High 


M,£, Bapatee 


Knox 


7.1 
7.2 


204 
204 


243 
265 


12,0 
12,0 


Very high 
Very high 



Farm land soils are classified as low, medium or high in available 

boron according to the following scale: 

Pounds of Available 

Boron per Acre Test Bating 

0-1 low 

1-2 medium 

3** high 

6 plus very high 



mo** 

Based on this classification these strip-mined soils are high to very 
high in available boron* The excellent growth of legumes and the good seed set 
of alfalfa growing on these soils indicate that the plants are getting adequate 
boron* 

Another angle to the boron problem is that excesses may be toxic* Borax 
is one of the old time weed killers* Consequently, the question has been raised 
regarding the quantity of available boron in these strip-cined soils that would 
be toxic to the grasses and legumes* Toxicity effects have not been noticed to 
date on forage crops growing on these soils* 

Mechanical Analysis of Strip-Mine Soil Material: 

The mineral particles of a soil range in size from those easily seen, 
such as rock, gravel and sand, to those not discernible as colloidal materials* 
The various size particles Impart their properties to a soil material, and according 
to the proportions present, determine to a great degree the physical nature of the 
soil. The percentage of the various soil-sized particles present also help deter- 
vine the textural name of a soil* By means of a mechanical analysis the particles 
of a soil can be separated into groups such as sand, silt or clay* which are 
referred to as separates* The sands, if dominant, give properties known as sandy, 
while If the soil is made up largely of silt and clay, its plasticity and stickiness 
indicate that it is clayey in nature* 

Strip-mine soil material is a heterogeneous mixture of rock, slate, 
shale, sand and gravel, glacial till and loessal material. The larger the perv* 
centage of soil— sized particles (2 mm* or less In diameter) present, the greater 
are the opportunities for successful reclamation providing the chemical composition 
Is not deleterious. As yet the percentage of fine material, less than 2 mm* In 
size, in the various strip-mine soils in Illinois has not been determined other than 



~7~ 

"by observation* This will vary with location and age of the mined land. It has 
been estimated that from *K) to 95 percent of the material is finer than 2 mm. 

While the amount of material finer than 2 mm. Is important, the per- 
centage of the various separates such as sand, silt and clay in this fine 
material is also important. Therefore, to help understand the physical properties 
of the soil material and to assist in the classification (5) or naming of the 
strip-mined soil material, the mechanical analysis of this finer material was 
determined. Thirty-nine samples from eight counties have been analyzed. The 
hydrometer method was used. The material finer than 2 mm. was separated into the 
following sizes: sand, from 2 mm. to .05 mm.; silt, from .05 to .002 mm.; clay, 
finer than .002 mm. 

The results are listed in Table 3. Fifteen of the 39 samples fell in 
the textural group known as silty clay loams. Six of the samples would be classic 
fied as silty clays, six as clay loams, five as loams, four as silt loams, two 
as clays and one as sandy loam. 

The Effect of Neutralizing Toxic Acid Shales With Limestone: 

In previous reports reference has been made to the soil samples that had 
a very low pH. This condition has been referred to as toxic acid (5) since the 
pH has been found to be as low as 2.2 and a pH below 3«8 is considered to be toxic 
to all plants. The presence and resultant weathering of sulfur in the various 
shale layers is the cause of the acid condition. 

Enough material of two of these sulfurous shales was brought into the 
greenhouse so that the neutralization of the acidity could be studied. One of 
the shales was a blue-gray shale from southern Illinois, probably Coppers Creek 
shale. It is quite high in clay. Over 50 percent of the material finer than 2 
mm. is less than .002 mm. in size. Thus the physical condition is sticky and 



mQ*» 



Table 3.— Mechanical Analysis of Strip-Mine Soil Materials Finer Than 2 mm, 









Soil separates 










Sand 


Silt 


Clay 




Companies 


Counties 


•05 mm e 


•05-.002 mm. 


.002 mm. 


Textural name 






£21,. 


pcti 


pet* 






Delta Collieries 


Williamson 


21.6 


48.7 


29.7 


Clay loam 








15.5 


53.3 


31.2 


Silty clay 


loam 






15.3 


55.1 


29.6 


Silty clay 


loam 


Truax-Traer 


Jackson 


14.4 


46.7 


38.9 


Silty clay 


loam 


Elkville 




18.0 


42.0 


40.0 


Silty clay 








18.2 


49.0 


32.9 


Silty clay 


loam 






16.8 


50.4 


32.8 


Silty clay 


loam 






15.0 


51.2 


33.8 


Silty clay 


loam 


U.E. Fidelity 


Perry 


31.2 


42.9 


25.9 


Loam 








28.2 


42.0 


29.8 


Clay loam 




Pyramid 


Perry 


16.0 


55.0 


29.0 


Silty clay 


loam 






14.5 


55.2 


30.3 


Silty clay 


loam 




* 


16.1 


57.2 


26.7 


Silt loam 




B e Somers 


Fulton 


28.8 


50.2 


21.0 


Silt loam 








20.1 


54.1 


25.8 


Silt loam 








15.8 


59.8 


24.4 


Silt loam 








40.2 


39.8 


20.0 


Loam 




U.S. Cuba Mine 


Fulton 


20.6 


40.5 


38.9 


Silty clay 


loam 






16.7 


42.1 


41 2 


Silty clay 








10.1 


49.0 


40.9 


Silty clay 








10.4 


48.3 


41.3 


Silty clay 




T.T. Fiatt 


Fulton 


11.4 


60.3 


28.3 


Silty clay loam 






15.8 


46.6 


37.6 


Silty clay 


loam 


M.E. Sheffield 


Bureau 


17.1 


40.2 


42.7 


Silty clay 








25 »3 


36.0 


38.7 


Clay loam 




• 




16.1 


44.1 


39.8 


Silty clay 


loam 






16.7 


39.7 


43.6 


Clays 








19.5 


41.1 


39.4 


Silty clay 


loam 




•-. 


19.6 


41.3 


39.1 


Silty clay 


loam 


Northern Illinois 


Grundy 


40.9 


36.0 


23.1 


Loams 




Strike-off plot 




40.3 


39.6 


20.1 


Loams 




Area 




56.8 


24.8 


18.4 


Sandy loams 


t* 


Northern Illinois 


Kankakee 


13.7 


32.8 


53.5 


Clays 




Pit 12 




25.1 


41.7 


33.2 


Clay loam 








41.6 


28.3 


30.1 


Clay loam 








12.2 


48.8 


39.0 


Silty clay 


loams* 


Harmattan 


Vermilion 


39.0 


33.8 


27.2 


Clay loam 8 


(reddish) 






40.8 


34.0 


25.2 


Loams (reddish) 






2.7 


45.2 


52.1 


Silty clay (blue-^jray) 



♦From Will county 



-9~ 

plastic when wet* After weathering the reaction or pH of this material is about 
2,6, There was about 5 percent organic matter in this shale* The other shale 
was. a yellow shale from western Illinois known as the Canton shale* It was found 
to have ahout 63 percent of clay finer than .002 mm. in size* After weathering 
the pfi of the material was about 2 .3* These toxic acid spots appear as wet look~ 
ing dark areas that are very compact and hard. According to tests the available 
phosphorus and potassium content was very high* The organic matter content of the 
yellow shale was very low with about 1*25 percent recorded. 

Known quantities of these shales were placed in pots in the greenhouse 
and limestone was added at various rates* At first 5 plots in duplicate were 
treated at the rate of 0, 5. 10, 20 and 40 tons per acre of limestone, respectively, 
The pots were watered regularly so that neutralization of the acidity could be 
accomplished. The results are presented in Table 4* On the blue shale, 40 tons 
of limestone per acre brought the pH up to 7.0* However, on the yellow shale the 
40 tons of limestone did not raise the pH up to 7.0 or neutral. Therefore, to 4 
pots of the second series more limestone was added. Sixty tons of limestone was 
required to bring the pH up to and above neutral. 

After the shale material had been neutralized, inoculated alfalfa, red 
clover and birdsfoot trefoil were seeded in the plots. The early legume growth 
is noted in Table 4. Figure 2 shows the growth of legumes after the limestone 
treatment. 

Prom this study it appears that toxic acid areas if graded can be 
neutralized and legumes will grow on such treated areas. However, because of 
the high clay content and poor physical condition and the extremely large amount 
of limestone required, reclaiming these toxic acid areas seems impractical. A 
more logical approach might be to bury any sulfurous materials in the mining 
operation. 



-10- 



Table 4 C — Effect of Liming on Two Highly Acid Shales 





Limestone^ 
treatment 


Soil 


reaction 






Before 


After 


Legume 


Material 


per acre 


liming 


liming 


growth 




tons 








Blue shale 





2.6 


2.8 


None 


Series I 


5 


2.6 


3.1 


ft one 




10 


2.6 


3.8 


None 




20 


2.7 


5.7 


Fair 




40 


2.? 


7.0 


Good 


Blue shale 





2.7 


2.9 


None 


Series II 


5 


2.6 


3.2 


None 




10 


2.6 


3.7 


None 




20 


2.55 


6.2 


Fair 




40 


2.6 


7.2 


Good 


Yellow shale 





2.25 


2.4 


None 


Series I 


5 


2.25 


2.6 


None 




10 


2.3 


3.0 


None 




20 


2.3 


3.7 


None 




40 


2.3 


5.2 


Fair 


Yellow shale 





2.3 


2.5 


Series 


Series II 


5 


2.3 


3.0 


Relimed 




10 


2.3 


2.8 






20 


2.25 


3.2 






40 


2.3 


3.5 




Yellow shale 





2.3 


2.5 


None 


Series II 


^5 


3.0 


6.3 


Good 


with more 


50 


2.8 


6.0 


Fair 


Ls, added 


60 


3.2 


7.3 


Good 




70 


3.5 


7.2 


Good 



s/ 



Limestone-calcium carbonate chemically pure. 



-11~ 




NO TREATMEI 



LIMESTONE 2 



IIWESTP' 




Acid shale study. The effect of adding limestone to (1) "blue acid shale (upper) 
and (2) yellow acid shale (lover) on Boil reaction or pH and on the growth of 
legumes, (Fig* 2) 



-12- 



The Organic Matter Content of Several Strata in the Overburden of 
Strip-Mine Lands: 

In rather limited areas in western Illinois a muck-type soil material 
has "been observed in the upper portion of the overburden. This probably represents 
an old lake bed. The strata is quite variable in thickness and extremely localized. 
The material is very dark appearing and high in organic matter. 

The organic matter content of this muck material from two locations 
was determined. In addition a black slatey shale, the blue and yellow acid shales 
and a random sample of strip-mine soil material was analyzed for organic matter 
content. The determinations were made by Mr. J. Hemwall of the Soil Physics 
Laboratory. The percentage of organic matter, the pH and available phosphorus 
content are presented in Table 5. The organic matter found in these strata may be 
compared with two farm soils rather common in the western Illinois areas, Muscatine 
and Clinton silt loams. 



Table 5.— Organic Matter Content, Reaction, Available Phosphorus and 
Potassium of Several Strata in the Material Over the Coal 



Strata 



Organic . 
matter^/ 



Available 
pfi P 2 0^ 



Available 
K 2 



1. Muck (Knox county) 

2. Muck (Fnlton county) 

3. Black slatey shale 

4. Blue shale (acid) 

5. Yellow shale (acid) 

6. Random sample of strip- 
mine 8 oil material in 
western Illinois 

7. Muscatine silt loas£/ 

8. Clinton silt loarn^/ 



£Ct* 




lb. 


8.12 


6.4 


56 


7.21 


7.0 


117 


10.99 


6.5 


200* 


5.09 


2.6 


200* 


1.23 


2.3 


2001- 


0.50 


7.4 


204* 


5.5* 


6.0 


• • o 


1.85 - 2.45 


6.0 


... 



lb. 
40 

40- 

307* 
300* 
300* 
192 



. • 



a/ 



Based on carbon determination. 



u 



Unpublished data in files of Soil Survey division. 



~13~ 

Physically organic matter is important as it improves the physical 
conditions and increases the water-holding capacity of soils. Chemically organic 
matter is a source of plant food materials and biologically it promotes the activity 
of bacteria and other organisms • In most strip-mine soils the organic matter content li 
yery low. Where present this muck material greatly improves the physical con- 
dition of the soil material and where such areas are graded, cultivated crops 
can be produced soon after grading • 

Grading of Strip-Mine Land: 

The grading of strip-mine land has greatly increased since 1950. The 
physical and chemical characteristics of the soil material and the eventual land 
use are of prime importance when considering grading • In order to determine the 
effects of grading on soil structure and the resulting growth of forage species, 
a study on the infiltration rate was conducted. This is the rate at which water 
passes downward Into and through the soll 

Three physical conditions of the mined land were selected, i.e. (1) 
undisturbed ridgee or banks, (2) strike off tops and (3) graded areas (accessible 
with farm equipment ) Each of the three types of physical conditions was analyzed 
under two phases of vegetation, i.e. (1) well vegetated with legumes and (2) bare 
of vegetation. These studies were carred out on the two major spoil types, 4-C 
calcareous silty clays and 4-B calcareous loams and silty shales. 

On strike-off tops and on graded areas infiltration rate was determined 
by means of a 1-foot square sheet iron frame slatted parallel to one edge and 
supplied with a trough (1). The frame was sunk into the soil with the slot parallel 
to and at the soil surface. A 1-foot square pan perforated with 100 pinholes was 
set over the top of the frame, and through this water was poured. As the water 
dropped onto the soil, part of it was absorbed and the remainder ran off, passed 



through the slot and down the trough, and was caught in a cylinder placed in a 
soil pit alongside the absorption frame* Water was applied at the rate of 5 
inches per hour. When the rates of runoff remained the same for two or three 
consecutive applications, infiltration was considered constant and recorded as 
such. 

For the remainder of the study, that is the ridges, the cylinder method 
was used (?)© Cylinders 8 inches in diameter were forced vertically into the 
soil material. Calibrated burettes were then placed into position, as shown in 
Figure 3» filled with water and measurements were started. Headings were taken 
at 15 minute intervals for 1 hour and at 30~minute intervals for 2 hours • There- 
after, readings were taken hourly for 3 hours, making a 7~hour period during which 
readings were taken. The infiltration recorded during the sixth and seventh hour 
was averaged to get the average infiltration rate per hour. 

The data obtained are presented in Table 6 and as is indicated by the 
standard deviations, there was wide variation in the infiltration. This was 
especially true of the ridges, both bare and vegetated. In general there was 
not much difference in the infiltration rate on level and strike-off tops, but 
the ridges had a significantly higher rate of infiltration. Vegetation has in- 
creased the infiltration under all three physical conditions. The infiltration 
rate on the vegetated ridges of the calcareous silty clay, rocky and calcareous 
loams, loessal, spoil types was very rapid. 

Further studies are being made on graded areas, bare and vegetated with 
the cylinder method to determine the variations in the infiltration rate* This 
study is incomplete at this time. In one location on a soil material high in 
blue clay shale, the infiltration of 10 samples averaged about 0.45 inches per 
hour* The variation in the 10 samples ranged from 0.05 inch per hour to 1.60 



-15- 




^«<-^-- <.■'■• ■■■■ ;m *<;-■■■< Sx?i»« 

fc**- - ■ sr: : i: ■■'Mm 



Cylinder method of determining the infiltration on the side of "bare ridges. 

(Pig. 3) 



8g 




«H «H 




» 4» 




z$ 




PH © 




w 




4» © 




c > 1 




5 




u © 1 


•d 


© S 


1 v 


«M 5 


© 


S3 i 


** 

© 


1 


^ 


© CD 


© 


<p CO 


> 


Pi ffl" 




X H 




E"< C3 




u n 




© CJ 




•CJ CS 




e 




E> © 




Pi 




co a} 




© PQ 




ft • 




EH Pi 




© 




H ► 




*■• O 




O O 




ft 




W «H 




O 




9 CD 




O © 




fc S 




c e« 














3 n 




c 




W a! 




(4 - 




© ^» 




Ph CO 


• 


© 


l-> 


go U) 
© fj 


09 

pq 


JC3 >H 




Pi 




a 




y-t tt 




c 




c <C 




•H 




<H 




CO <H 




© O 




-P 1 




© © 




«H 




C Pi 




O 4* 




«H OD 




*> 




•J • 




Pi iH 




■P © 




rH > 




«H © 




«M r-l 




Ci w 




M 




IS 









\0 <H 




4» 




« -H 




r-» <P 




,0 c 




03 O 




E-« O 





a 
© 

•H 



«W 

c 
I 
© 

M 

«H 
Pi 
4* 
CO 





© 

•H 



<M 

O 
I 
© 

M 

Pi 
4» 

CO 



-16* 



il 



si 



il 



i 



© 

© 

r-3 



o 

P- 
CO 



i! 



il 






4 I 

e 

cn. 



NO 

• 
O 

4 I 

CN 

00 



-3/ 
vO 

e 

o 

4 I 
OS 



CO 



A 



rH 4* 



O 

© o 
© o 

Pi 4» 



i 



CM 
ON 

• 

UN 



41 

vr\ 

cn 



3 


C 

♦ I 

CM 
O 



S 

e 
O 

41 

H 
ON 

• 

O 






3 


• 


e 


O 


O 


rH 




4 1 


41 


• 




ON 


UN 


CM 


o\ 


• 


• 


ON 


rH 



A 



• 




• 
O 


01 


41 


un 

c>- 

• 

O 


CO 

UN 

• 
O 


8 

« 




un 

CM 

• 

O 


41 


41 


ON 
CO 


O 


O 
CV 

• 

O 



© P © 



rH 

a 

K 
>» O 

'5 



T3 

a 

© 03 

la 
© o 

Pi ♦> 

© 
O 



8 



• 


• 




© 


■* 


ON 




Pi 


CM 


rH 




© 


4 1 


4t 










a 


CO 


Cs- 


ON 


a 


cn 


CM 


CO 








« 


• 


•H 


r-l 


<*> 


O- 


4> 


CN 


»r\ 


CM 


cd 
c 

•r-l 

a 


CM 


H 




Pi 


CM 


O 




© 


• 


« 




•*» 


O 


rH 




© 


41 


#•! 










O 


3 


vO 


rA 


CM 


• 


• 





^ 


rH 


r* 


i-i 


O 


rA 


O 






UN 


O 




c 


• 


■ 




•H 


O 


t~i 




* 


41 


4 1 




•#» 


O 


rH 


OS 


P. 


-* 


C*- 


C^V 


© 








• 


O 


«H 


«H 


i-i 


X 

© 

© 

d 



vO 


O 




w* 


CM 


cn 




«9 


• 


• 




tf 


UN 


CN 




c 



© 
© 

c 



CO 

MD 



o 

41 

rH 
O 

• 
rH 



OS 

o 
41 

ON 



o 

Pi 

>; 

r5 



4* 
-H >» 

•H 4* 

« 



© 
Pi 

as 
o 



41 

CO 

CM 



sO 
CN 

O 

41 

O 

CM 

* 



O 

o 

41 

CM 

J" 

• 

O 



s 

tt 

© 
o 



CM 



ON 

CO 

o 



UN. 
CO 

o 



4* 



I 



3 b 
o o 



o 
o 

>» 

Pi 
Pi 

© 



aS 



J 



r4 0* 

a) 
o 



o 
I 



© 

a 

O r-l 
© O 

Pi 

© 
O 



© 



3 



4* 

CO 



V 



Pi 

© 



© 

4» 
© 

O 

rH 

Vi 
O 

c 

< 

a 

(6 

co 



a 
o 

^-« 

4> 

a 

► 
© 

Pi 

C 

OS 

4* 
© 

© 
4* 



© 
Pi 

6 



O 



© 
© 



~17~ 



inches per hour. lrfith this great variation noted more recordings are needed to 
obtair more accurate information as to infiltration or permeability. 

Guides have been established to classify the permeability of agricultural 
soils (8). Seven degrees of permeability will express the most significant 
variations of the infiltration of most farm soils. The ranges of permeability 
and some of the soil types that fall into these ranges are: 



Description of 
rate of perme- 
ability 

Very slow 
Slow 

Moderately slow 
Moderate 

Moderately rapid 

Rapid 

Very rapid 



Infiltration 
in Inches 
per hour 

Less than .05 
0.05 to 0.20 
0.20 to 0.80 
0.80 to 2.50 

2.50 to 5»00 
5.00 to 10.00 
More than 10.00 



Soil Group 



Cisne - Wynoose silt loam 
Svygert silt loam 
Herri ck silt loam 
Flanagan and Muscatine 

silt loam 
Joy-Fort Byron silt loam 
O'Neill sandy loam 
Hagener loamy sand 



Based on this guide the infiltration rate or permeability of the graded 
areas, both bare and vegetated, can be classified as moderate. The bare ridges 
may be classified as rapid and the vegetated ridges as very rapid. 

The effects of grading on the reaction or pH of the soil material and 
on the availability of phosphorus and potassium is presented in Table 7. For the 
graded area, 238 soil samples from l^f different locations were analyzed while 261 
samples from 13 different locations were analyzed for the area not graded. The 
effect on reaction or pH was variable. In some cases the pH was lowered by 
grading as found on a calcareous loam (loessal) spoil type on the Midwest Hadiant 
Corporation property. On three locations the pH was raised. The over-all average 
was a lowering of 0.08 of a unit. 

With but one exception the available phosphorus was raised as a result 
of grading. The average increase was approximately ho pounds. Five of the areas 



were raised to 200 pounds plus, so undoubtedly the total was actually raised more 



—18** 



Table 7.— Effect of Grading on Soil Reaction and Availability 

of Phosphorus and Potassium 



Location 




Humbetf of 
samples 


pH 


P 


K 


Soil type 


Forsythe Williamson 


Not graded 
Graded (level) 


11 
12 


5A 
7.1 


157 
198 


150 
184 


5-C mixed 
clays 


Truax-Elkville 


Not graded 
Graded (level) 


20 
15 


6.3 
6.0 


58 
174 


155 
207 


5-C mixed 
clays 


Pyramid 


Not graded . 
Graded CS.Oj^' 


27 
22 


7.4 
7o8 


86 
78 


123 
172 


4-C calc. 
clays 


Midwest Radiant 


Not graded 
Graded (S.O.) 


13 
13 


7.4 
6.4 


116 
161 


107 
125 


4— E calc. 
loams 


Little Sister 


Not graded 
Graded (level) 


12 

14 


7.8 
7.2 


114 
204 


1*5 
211 


4-C calc* 
silty clay 


U.E C Buckheart 


Not graded 
Graded (level) 


20 
12 


7.7 
7.3 


94 
148 


143 
128 


4-C calc. 
silty clay 


U.E. Cuba 


Not graded 
Graded (level) 


15 

16 


7.6 
7.4 


140 
204 


143 
192 


4-C calc. 
silty clay 


Truax-Fiatt 


Not graded 
Graded (level) 


28 
15 


7.7 
7.6 


144 
200 


154 
191 


4-C calCo 
silty clay 


Fairviev 


Not graded 
Graded (lHS.O.) 
Graded (2)£(S.0.) 


12 
12 
10 


6.3 
7.5 
7.3 


131 
141 

195 


148 

153 
196 


4-B calc. 
silty shales 


M.E. Rapatee (No. 5) 


Not graded 
Graded (level) 


40 
40 


7.7 
7.3 


134 
200 


121 
232 


4-B calc. 
silty shales 


(No.6) 


Not graded 
Graded (level) 


16 
12 


7.4 
7.4 


15* 
188 


196 
132 


4~C calc. 
silty clay 


Little John 


Not graded 
Graded (S.O.) 


16 
20 


7.2 
7.2 


167 
200 


152 

164 


4-C calc. 
silty clay 


M.E. Sheffield 


Not graded 
Graded (level) 


26 
10 


7.4 
7.3 


152 
198 


285 
261 


4-L calc. 
silty clay 


Northern Illinois 


Not graded 
Graded (S.O.) 


5 
15 


8.0 
7.2 


151 
154 


150 

179 


4-3 calc 
silty shales 


Overall Average 


Not graded 
Graded 


261 

238 


7.79 
7.70 


138.3 
177.8 


155.5 

194.8 


x 




Plus or minus 
for grading 




-0.08 


♦ 39.5 


♦39.3 





a/ 

-'Strike-off, top of ridge knocked off, 

-'Two different locations graded. 



-19- 

than 40 pounds per acre. The available potassium content was higher after grading 
than prior to grading in all but three instances* The average increase was 
approximately 40 pounds per acre. 

There may he several explanations for these phenomena: (1) the 
mechanical "breaking of the clay mineral tends to expose the nutrient material 
and make it more available at least temporarily, (2) wetting and drying of freshly 
exposed material affects the availability of potassium. Thus over a long period 
of time the availability of potassium would be expected to increase even though 
no grading was done (3) sulfur has the tendency to make phosphorus more avail** 
able. Spreading the sulfur around may tend to accomplish this. The presence 
of sulfur also has an effect on the soil reaction or pH, causing the soil to be 
more acid. However, the abundance of calcium and magnesium probably neutralizes 
the increased acidity. 

The growth of forage plants on graded areas is the ultimate means of 
measuring the effects of grading. If the forage plants will not grow on graded 
areas, all the other measurements have not measured the controlling or limiting 
factor. However, from the studies made on forage growth and where the physical 
and chemical composition of the soil material is favorable, grading has not re~ 
tarded the growth of forage. Bather grading has several beneficial effects. 
Less seed is required per acre, thicker stands have been obtained, weeds can be 
controlled easier, and the excess forage material can be harvested as hay as 
well as pasturage. 

Determination of the Slope of the Ridges of Mined Land: 

The stripping shovel deposits the soil material in the overburden in 
the form of long parallel ridges. These ridges may rise 20 feet or more above 
the original surface of the ground. The slopes of the ridges are generally 



-20- 



quite steep. Slope measurements made at a number of locations on newly mined 
ridges ranged between 40 and 65 percent with about a 55 percent slope being 
typical. Measurements made at one location in 1948 on new ridges averaged 59 
percent. Three years later, in 1951 1 the same ridges averaged about 50 percent. 
This indicates approximately a 10 percent decrease in the degree of slope as a 
result of 3 yeers of weathering and settling of the soil material. 

Another report on the settling of the ridges was recorded by Coxton 
(3). Long wire stakes were placed in the peaks of newly formed ridges. Measure- 
ments indicated that the ridges lowered about 2 feet during the first year, 
FORAGE CROP SPECIES ADAPTATION STUDIES: 

The number of experimental plots that have been established since 194? 
is over 2,500. Seventy-two different species and varieties of forage and culti- 
vated crop plants have been used to seed these plots. Fertility studies have 
been made on many of these areas. 

Species Adaptation: 

Excellent results have been obtained with adapted species of legumes 
seeded on newly mined lands. By inoculating the legume seeds prior to seeding, 
nodules generally are produced on the plant roots, and the legume plant is then 
capable of fixing nitrogen from the atmosphere and making it available in the 
soil. This is especially important to the growth of grasses on nitrogen and 
organic matter deficient strip-mined soils. The only source of nitrogen other 
than the legumes is that from rainfall and that made available through soil 
microbiological activity. 

Legume species that are well adapted include alfalfa, birdsfoot trefoil, 
red clover, sweet clover, lespedeza and Eudzu, Birdsfoot trefoil continues to 
be well adapted to strip-mined lands (see Fig. 4) This species gives best results 



-21- 




»** 






v 








*■ A 







An established stand of birdsfoot trefoil on strip-mined land in Pulton county. 

(Fig. 4) 



-22- 



when seeded as the only legume along with one or two grasses . In its early stages 
of growth, it does not compete well with other legumes in a mixture. It is im- 
portant to inoculate the birdsfoot trefoil with the Lotus strain of inoculant 
for satisfactory results „ 

The adaptation of several strains of alfalfa varieties has been studied 
The nonwinter hardy and nondisease resistant varieties such as Kansas Common and 
Oklahoma Common that were seeded in 19^8 have not persisted,, Only a few plots 
were seeded in 19^8 with the hardy, disease-resistant varieties, Buffalo and 
Ranger. The stands of these varieties are still good. 

Eleven varieties or strains of alfalfa were seeded in 1951 on graded 
strip— "lined lands to observe winter hardiness, longevity and yielding capacity. 
The following varieties are included: (1) Ranger (2) Buffalo (3) Kansas Common 
(k) New Mexico Common, Roswell, New Mexico (5) New Mexico Common, Hatch, New Mexico 
(6) Grimm (7) Cossack (8) Dakota No. 12 (9) Chilean (10) African (11) Indian 
strains from Advance, Arizona. 

Winter survival, forage, and seed yields obtained from seven varieties 
that had been seeded in 1950 are listed in Table 8. Relatively good winter 
survival was noted for the New Mexico Common strains. The survival of these two 
strains was better in southern than in western Illinois. Rather poor winter 
survival and yields were obtained for the three strains, Chilean, Indian, and 
African. Figure 5 shows alfalfa variety plots on a graded area. 

Alfalfa was again cut for seed production in 1951« Some yields obtained 
are reported in Table 8. Approximately 60 pounds or 1 bushel per acre was the 
average yield obtained. This is 4 to 6 times less than in 1950. The 1951 growing 
season was more rainy and much shattering was noted. It is believed that the 
wet season was largely responsible for the lower yields. 



•d 

0) 
>i 

•d 

0) 



I 

*» 

g 

•d 

c) 

CM 

•d 
d 

<s 

4» 
at 



n -d 

en • 

m 

5S 



y 



4* 



i-* 4* O 



%%« 

«H «r« 4) 
4» 4» 4) 
4» 4* oo 

gg 

4» Tj 

« d 

iH CM 



■d 

«5 d 4* 

13 » 

4* CM O 

OB b 

rH t«D 



89 » 

<H «> © 

O rH ► 

a. « 

• £ 

o 3 a 

J3 00 -H 



•d 

>»! 

4) 



O 



<JJ 



4) 
r« 
O 

08 

4> 



Vt © 
O rH 

• a 

SB 09 



4> ► 
4* «H 

a > 



•23- 



• o 

it 



»n 

• CM 

• • 

• O 

• co 



vn 

• • 

» o- 

• vr\ 



• e 

it 



• vn 

• e 

• vn 

• CM 



o o 

• • 

• r-» 

• CM 






O O © vn 

•4- on O en 



• o 

en - 



-* 00 



\T\r4 •• •• •• •• •• 

i— I oo ** • ♦ • • • • * • 

vO vr\ •• •• o. •• •• 



vnoo 



•^t 



• -* 



o^i- 



• -d- 



• ^* 



sl 



.* 


O 


cm vr\ 


rH 


o 


envn 


VO 


en 


O^r* 



■3- en 



o--4- 



3S 

-3- m 



C^rH 


CM 


-* vr> 


00 


CM vO 


vn 



vnen 



-3- CM 



o «n 

vo en 
cm en 

-4 CM 



o 

vn • 
on • 

• 

CM • 



en cm 



rH vO 



en^o 



cm vo 



CM vO 



CM vO 



envo 



<M 4» 

rH 4) 
4? «H 
<H U 

rH CO 

<J > 



4* 

o 

PI 



© 00 


O- ri 


o ^n 


c^o 


oen 


• e 


• e 


« e 


• • 


• « 


O en 


\o o 


00 -3" 


vnco 


CM vO 


O-00 


o-co 


00 vO 


oo \n 


vn en 



o o 
■* CM 



oo o- 

• • 

o -d- 

enrH 



^1 

00 U| 

•H 00 

O «H 

d o 

•r* d 

rH -r* 

d rH H 

O (-1 rH 



00 

«-l 01 

o ** 

c o 



O 
4> 

A 



O 
O 

CD 

a) 
oo 

d 



t-4 ^ O 



c 

a) 

.d 



d 
a> 



4> 4> 
d 00 
O 4> 



<H 



d 

h d 

a» u 

XI 4> 

4» 4» 

d DO 

O 4) 



o 
o 

K 
4) 

4> 

S3 



09 

O «»-• 

d o 

•h d 



d 
u 

4) 

jd 



d 

rH 

a> 



4» 4» 

d » 

o a> 

w 3 



4) 

9 
CO 

o 

P4 



o 
o 

o 

o 

•H 

« 

4> 



3 
4> 



09 

•H 09 

O «H 

d o 

«h d 



£3 

0) 
XI 



d 

4) 



4> 4» 

d 09 

O 4) 

CO 3t 



jd 
o 



09 

•H 09 

O -H 

d o 



d 

u d 

4) (H 

Jd CD 

4> 4> 

d 09 

o <x> 

V) * 



s 

•H 

•d 
d 



09 

•h «o 

O <r* 

d o 

■h d 



d 

»-l d 

0) (4 

X! 4) 

? 09 

O 4) 

co :» 



0) 

•H 09 
O «H 

d o 
•h d 



o 
vn 

ON 



xi 
o 



•d 

4> 

d 

4) 

cw 

00 

0) 

u 

4) 

00 
CP 



c 

o 

ft 



d 




(4 

4) 


e 


X) 


4) 


4i 


4> 


g 


00 
4) 


CO 


* 



43 

► 

rH 

r* 
<M 

rH 

i 1 



4> 

d 



S 
+* 



4) 

•d 

Ml 

d 

& 

e 
o 
o 



s 

o 

CJ 

•H 

V. 

4» 

o 

4) 
rH 

•d 4* 

CD 



B 

eo 



o 
u 

d 
o 

00 



4* X 

•r* U 

oi a) 

CM 

00 4> 

•h d 

d a 



4) T< 



4) 



4) rH 

4» 

d • 
co d 

^ I 

S 
o 
o 



u 

4* 

o 

4> 

H 

d 
as 

n 

•d 
d 

43 

>> 

4» 

1 
o 

d 
o 

4* 

rH 



4) 

d 



01 • 

CM *» 



at 
•h O 
o o 
d 

r-l O 



HH rH d 

•H r-l M 



d • 
w. d 

CP o 

4> ^-« 
00 4* 

5 8 

o 
ft 
u 

o 
o 



o| 



~24~ 




Alfalfa variety plots on a graded area in Pulton county, 1951* Note the ungraded 
spoil ridges in the background. (Jig» 5) 



Photo Courtesy of C. Adams 



-25- 

Leepedeza Is one of the legume species that is very well adapted to 
southern Illinois, Good cover and yields are obtained the first year. On many 
mined areas in southern Illinois lespedexa has completely covered the ridges as 
the result of volunteer seed. This species in an annual that matures in the fall 
of the year. The grazing season for lespedeza is in August and September, 

As reported earlier, Eudzu has grown remarkably well on mined lands in 
southern Illinois, Crowns planted in 19^6 have survived the rather severe winter 
of 1950-51. During both the 1950 and 1951 growing seasons, clusters of large 
purple flowers were produced. In 1951 seed pods were formed but only a few of 
the pods contained viable seed. The Kudzu planted on the mined land has pro** 
duced new rootings from the long runners. This has resulted in a more rapid 
spreading of the plants. However, it is unlikely that under Illinois conditions 
it will yield as much pasturage as the better adapted legumes and grasses. When 
used as a pasture it must not be overgrazed, since overgrazing will kill the 
plant * 

Grasses have become established more slowly on strip— mined soils than 
legumes. One reason is the lack of nitrogen in the soil material. Of the grasses 
tall fescue, orchard grass and bromegrass become established most rapidly when 
seeded, Kentucky bluegrass, timothy, redtop and Reed canary grass become 
established more slowly. Other grasses that have been established to varying 
degrees on mined lands include tall oatgrass, western wheat grass, crested wheat 
grass, Canadian wild rye, switch grass and bluestems. Some of these latter 
species will probably not be used intensively in Illinois since the more common 
grasses are more available and often more desirable pasture species. 

The establishment of a good grass cover takes at least 2 years and often 
longer. On many plots that were seeded in the spring of 19^ with a mixture' of 






-26- 



grasses and legumes, grasses were dominant in 1951* As the nitrogen content 
increases with the growing of legumes, the grasses become more prolific and may 
crowd out some legumes. Birdsfoot trefoil has withstood the competition from 
the grasses better than the rest of the common legumes seeded. 

Establishment of Mixtures: 

Better pastures usually result where a mixture of grasses and legumes 
is seeded than where a single species is seeded. Based on past results the 
most satisfactory stands have been obtained by seeding both grasses and legumes 
in the spring of the year on newly-mined ridges. During the first several years, 
the growth is dominantly legumes with the grasses increasing slowly. 

Some yields that have been obtained in 1951 from mixtures seeded at 
various locations are listed in Table 9« The best yield obtained was from the 
birdsfoot trefoil*^rass mixture seeded in 19^6© Mixtures containing alfalfa 
and clovers generally give higher yields on second and third year seedings than 
birdsfoot trefoilo 

Use of Grain and Seed Crops: 

Of the grain crops that have been seeded on mined lands, wheat and 
rye have generally given good results. The yield of wheat obtained and the 
fertilizer treatment used on a level area in western Illinois are listed in 
Table 10. Highest yields, but with the greatest variation, were obtained on the 
plots where 60 pounds of nitrogen were top-dressed in the spring. Phosphorus 
and potassium as applied in 60-60-60 treatment did not increase the yield ob~ 
tained over nitrogen alone. The yields obtained when 20-0-0 or 20-60-60 was 
applied show that the limiting factor was nitrogen rather than phosphorus and 
potassium. 

Wheat was seeded on a larger scale on the same property. The amount 



~27~ 






o 

•d 

C 

A 

-d 
a> 

a 



d 
o 

•d 

<c 
o 

•g 

o 
u 
PH 



U 

o 

O 

0) 

•d 

iH 
«> 

*H 
>* 






EH 



4) 
t-i 
O 

fa 

P< 
•a 

rH 

ft) 

•rH 



OCtJI 
SB 

o 



<v 



ft. 



iH A 



4* 

a 



o 



4» 

u 

9 

ft 

O 



50 
<M « 
O r-l 

ft 
• 
O 

a to 



»oo«oo«ooo 
cnCMCMCMC\JrHvr\CMCMCM 



en r-i oc cm c*. -4- no en »n iH 

• •OOOOA000 

c^or-i en cm (nmnnn 



CO 
CM 



OnOO-CMCMOCMCMCJnO 

«i\0 rico h h vr\oo c^-'O o 

,o| O en <M sO »n -* CM O rH CN 
no -3- ^" u^^J- en o -3" *n vr* 



-* -a- 



CO400H\O O OSN 

o\ en-? rHco o- en O en e> 
*n cm vr\^j- r\NMsO 0\<h 

OO envO W>.\0 C^vOvO^O 



»n 



vO O O rH VN 
• » • • • 

CM CM CM en <\1 



00 -4" VO vnen 

cd cm en co en 
cm co on cm en 



CM O O CM r-C U>, C r-1 

ooooooo* 

CMiHCMCMCMCMCMCM 



© vO O CM VT\ 

cm o-oo en-4- 
en rH o o cm 




^w^envD^n -* en -3- -* -4- -* ^J- ^* 



^^^^^-^^^^ 



-<««<«i-<o-<«<<i««j 



(3 
O 

a 

cd 

«»■« 



o 

■ 

a 

G <C 
Son 

fa 4* rH 
(4 



d 
o 

a 
^ S * 

fa 4* rH 
fa 



fa 4* 

u 



g d d 

o o o 

OB SB a 

e a 6 

«j ,g 2 c3 o 

•H t>»0«H >> O «H >»0 

rH fc 4> rH U V rH r* +» 

rH U rH H I* rH rH fa 



G 
O 

•P 



•H©d*H o>d««-icoH •H«3»n©fl«Ha>H 



-^ «*t «* m 



! 

OB 

& 

ft 
CO 

CO 



c a c 
S o o o 

U 4» 4* .p 
(4 rH rH rH 

0« p£ £ fc 



O ^ <J O <J O <1 



0) 
G 



§ 

CO 

a 



G 

o 

(0 



G 

o 

SB 



r* >» K 

fa fa U 

r-i o o u u u 

«J «H aj «J © <P » 
C/J ^ >-» ►-> P* Ph Ph 



fl« 



»d *d *d 

«-• G «H d <H G 

tjadojBcjojBctf 

4* a} bj 4* «J etf) 4* tr) CO) 

fr. rH E (4 rH fa r4 

O ft> >» O «D S O 

SQrtXP rVX 



as a) 

•H 



£ 






•r* Ci «H O «rH 

U ri rH C U rH U 






^•jJ-CM^J-^CM-^^t-CM 



-d-^-CM^i-^J-CM-^^t-CM 



S 1 






NO 



nd w 



> 
V 




9 «0 
rH rH 

rH rH >» S 
•H n ♦> 4* 

5 i5 rH rH 

rH rH eg ft) 
SrlTJfl 
>-r ^-r <H -H T< 

r*( W «H 




co o- o en 



aj v U u • •bit 

CO Q rH 6-t ^3 D Ph 



cm -* en en cm cm -* 



X 

«H 

a 



o 













0B 
OB 






















• 


4 






















£ 


•d 








SB 














ha 


fa 








a 














S 


a 








fa 
d 








so 






o 


o 


• 






4> 






tt 


SB 


ft) 

§ 




fa 


fa 

t 


8 

SB 




OB 


H 

•H 

a 






B 


tu> 




rH 


rH 


• 




• 








«S 




SB 




•H 


«H 


Vi 




OB 


SB 






fa 


Ti 


9 




O 


O 






SB 


SB 






o 


i 


«H 

5 




«H 
• 
fa 

4* 


o 
fa 

4* 


4^ 
rH 

1 




G 
fa 

\9 


to 






fa 


h 


rH 


• 






CO 


-d 


-d 


to 




•? 


? 


f 


Sf 


4* 

o 


4* 

o 


4* 

o 


I 


§ 


S 


ar 


g 


^ 


«) 





fa 


o 


o 


o 






fa 


» 


«M 


V* 


«M 


ft) 


«M 


%H 


«H 


o 


o 


CO 


CO 


•d 


rH 


rH 


rH 


► 


OB 


0B 


«B 


► 


G 


a 


r» 


09 




CS 




<t 


-a 
fa 


fa 


fa 


•^ 


-d 


J 


-1 


OB 


rH 


rH 


r-i 




«H 


•H 


«H 




5 




CO 


^ 


* 


< 




f«4 


PQ 


PQ 




r^ 




r4 



CD 

► 

< 






0} 
•H 
4> 

a 

r, 

o 



c 

-a 



SB 

rh 
O 
4> 

«M 
«M 

o 
I 

ft) 

«H 
W. 
4> 
CO 



OB 

<H 
U 



o 

ft 

80 

d 

4) 

r. 

SB 
•H 

-d 

c 

P 

I 






-28- 



Table 10.— Yields of Vheat on Level Area in Western Illinois, 1951 
United Electric Coal Company, Bucfcheart Mine 

No. of Yield Standard 

plots Treatment^/ per acre deviation 



3 
4 

4 

4 
4 

4 

a/ 

—'The treatments were applied in the spring, 1951« All plots 

were fertilised with 150 pounds of 3-12-12 in the fall at plant- 
ing time* 





W* „ 


bu. 


Check 


4.73 


t 1.2 


20-0-0 


17.95 


i3.6 


60-0-0 


27*35 


£ 8.6 


60-60-60 


20.05 


J 2.6 


60-0-60 


22.2 


r 2.7 


20-60~60 


18.53 


2 5.2 



Table 11.— Yields of Soybeans on Land Area in Western Illinois, 1951 
Little Sister Coal Corporation, St. David, Illinois 

No. of Yield Standard 

plots Treatment per acre deviation 



2 
4 
4 
4 
2 
4 
4 
4 







bu. 


bu. 


Check 




5.5 


£ 0.3 


40-0^0 




14.7 


t 1.5 


40-40-40 




13.8 


Z 9o7 


0~UQ~kO 




8.0 


12.8 


Manure only 




5.3 


5 c o5 


Manure pins 


40-0-0 


12.4 


±3.5 


Manure plus 


40-40-40 13.7 


♦6.5 


Manure plus 


0-4o~4o 


12.1 


S 6.2 



~29- 

of wheat combined from a 4-e.cre area was 7k bushels or 18.5 bushels per acre* 
The yield on a larger area that was seeded very late was much poorer than on 
the 4-acre area* It was impossible to get accurate data from this area. 

Soybeans were seeded at several locations, both on plot size and field 
scale, in 1951* Yields were taken from the plots by pulling up all plants in 
a sample area and threshing with a laboratory machine* The yields obtained are 
listed in Table 11* Most of the plants on these plots were from 8 to 12 inches 
high. This is typical of what had been obtained in other years. Most of these 
soybeans could not have been harvested with a combine. Therefore, while it 
appears that the yields on fully treated plots may approach 15 or more bushels 
per acre, most of the plants were not tall enough to have been harvested* A 
larger area seeded by one of the companies was not harvested for this reason. 

However, on a muck-type soil material, the growth of soybeans was 
quite different. It may be recalled that in 1950, 25 bushels per acre of wheat 
was harvested from a muck-type soil material. In 1951 soybeans seeded on a similar 
area that had been graded grew very rank. Twenty-three bushels of beans were 
seeded on about 12 acres and 436. 5 bushels of soybeans were harvested. This is 
an average of 33 »8 bushels per acre. The quality of seed was excellent. This 
muck-type soil material on mined lands is very limited but where it is found, 
advantage should be taken of its presence* Such areas can be graded and im- 
mediately farmed with grain crops such as wheat, soybeans and corn. 
DETERMINATION OF FORAGE YIELDS AND QUALITY: 

Measurement of Forage Yields: 

On seeded areas that have become satisfactorily established, forage 
yields have been obtained. This was done by cutting either 2- or 4-foot square 
areas of forage. The forage was dried, weighed and converted to yields expressed 



as pounds and tons per acre Table 12 gives the yields of forage produced on 
strip-mined lands in 1949, 1950 and 195 U 

In 1951 yields of alfalfa-orchard grass, alfalfa-bromegrass and alfalfa- 
tall fescue were taken at three different locations with several replications at 
each location. The average yield of alfalfa and the three grasses was 5»^25 
pounds or 2 7 tons per acre. The grasses are increasing at the expense of the 
alfalfa which accounts in part for the relatively smaller yields in 1951» The 
yields of Mrdsfoot trefoil plus the three grasses were also taken at three locations. 
The average yield obtained was 6,169 pounds or 3»1 tons per acre. In general, there 
was less grass with the birdsfoot trefoil than with the alfalfa. Legume-grass 
mixtures were cut at 4 different locations. The average yield, three cuttings 
per season, was 4,948 pounds or 2.5 tons per acre With one exception these 
yields were obtained from the sides of undisturbed ridges. The rainy season at 
harvest time was responsible for not harvesting the l-<tcre plot in Enox county 
on graded area. After another season, larger plots on level areas will be 
harvested and yields obtained. 

Lespedeza was again cut in southern Illinois on seven different locations. 
The average yield obtained was 4,186 pounds or 2,1 tons per acre. A comparison of 
yields from undisturbed ridges and leveled areas was made. The average yield 
from the graded area was 4,629 pounds or 2,3 tons compared to 3»999 pounds or 2.0 
tons per acre on the undisturbed ridges » 

Three-year average yields of forage produced on strip**»ined lands in 
Illinois from 1949-51 is presented in Table 12. Over the 3"-year period, alfalfa 
and birdsfoot trefoil have given the highest yields. These yields, 3«^ tons per 
acre for alfalfa-grasses and 3o3 tons per acre for birdsfoot trefoil-grasses, com- 
pare very favorably with yields obtained on treated farm lands. Burlison (2) 



-31- 



Table 12.— 3?hree Tear Average Yield of Forage Produced on Strip- 
Mined Lands in Illinois, 1949-51 



Mixtures 



Year 


Yield per acre 




lb. 


tons 


1949 
1950 
1951 


7 624 
7 067 ' 
5 425 


3.8 
3.5 
2,7 


1949 
1950 
1951 


6 912 
6 811 
6 169 


3.5 
3.4 

3ol 


1949 
1950 
1951 


3 4?7 

4 702 
4 948 


1.7 
2.4 

2.5 


1949 
1950 
1951 


4 086 

3 350 

4 186 


2.0 

1.7 
2.1 


1950 
1951 


5 968 
5 611 


3.0 
2.8 



Average 



Alfalfa and grasses 

Average 

Birdsfoot trefoil and grasses 

Average 
Legumes and grasses 

Average 
Lespedeza and grass 

Average 

Ladino and grasses 
Average 



lb, 



6 705 



6 631 



4 376 



3 874 



5 790 



tons 



3.4 



3.3 



2.2 



1.9 



2.9 



Bed clover and grasses 



1949 4 195 



2.1 



-32- 

reports some yields that may be expected from several mixtures on Illinois farm 
land: (1) fertilised alfalfa-bromegrass, 2*& tons (2) fertilised timothy-clover, 
2*5 tons and (3) fertilised lespedeza grass, 2.3 tons of dry forage per acre. 

Forage yield data is helpful in determining the carrying capacity of 
strip-mine pastures. The following guides can be used to palculate the amount 
of pasture that will be needed if the number of livestock to be pastured is known 
(2). A 2-year old steer eats about 125-350 pounds of green forage a day (equivalent 
to about 25-30 pounds of dry forage). A year old steer eats about 80-100 pounds 
of green forage (16 to 20 pounds of dry forage). A mature ewe sheep eats about 
25 to 30 pounds of green forage a day (5 to 6 pounds of dry forage). 

Using this guide, an acre of alfalfa-grass mixture that would produce 
6,700 pounds of dry forage would provide about 223 days of grazing for a 2-year 
old steer. The grazing season in Illinois is seldom over 200 days. Also live- 
stock does not utilise all the forage produced since some is lost through trampling 
and other causes. Therefore, on strip-mined lands where good stands of forages 
have been obtained, 2 acres per animal unit over a long pasture season should 
provide adequate grazing if properly managed. 

Chemical Composition of Forage Species: 

The chemical composition of forage growing on strip-mined land in 1950 
Is presented in Table 13. Samples of the various forages were collected from the 
several spoil types at different locations and at various times of the year. 
Post species were sampled at the bloom stage of growth. 

This study of chemically analyzing forages growing on strip-mined lands 
has been continuous since 1948. Table 14 lists the average composition of the 
forage species during a 3-year period, 1948-51. A rather large amount of saicples 
of the common species has been analyzed. Four hundred twenty-five legume and 216 



-33- 



Table 13.- 



'Chemical Composition of Forage Crops Grown 
on Strip~Kined Land in 1950 





No. of 


















Crop 


samples 


NS./ 


Protein 


P»/ 


KA/ 


Ca»/ 


Hga/ 


MnS./ 


Si&/ 






pct r 


P9t, 


P. c t j, 


pet, 


pct f 


pet. 


Pet, 


E£li 


Legumes: 




















Alfalfa 


13 


2.98 


18.6 


.20 


1.81 


1.82 


.39 


.... 


.... 


Sweet clover 




















1st year 


l 


3.32 


20.8 


.24 


1.52 


1.86 


.69 






2nd year 


5 


3.08 


19.2 


.24 


1.99 


1.57 


.34 






Bed clover 


4 


2.71 


16.9 


.20 


1.83 


1.68 


.34 






Mammoth red clover 


1 


2.80 


17.5 


.25 


2.25 


1.74 


.52 






Alslke 


1 


3.44 


21.5 


.32 


2.08 


1.82 


.37 






Ladlno 


6 


4,02 


25.1 


.33 


2.31 


1.58 


.28 






Birdsfoot trefoil 




















Italy variety 


16 


2.89 


18.1 


.19 


2.05 


1.29 


.32 






New York variety 


4 


2.5? 


16.1 


.21 


1.86 


1.21 


.34 






Korean lespedesa 


11 


2.37 


14.8 


.26 


.94 


1.33 


.18 






Kobe lespedeza 


2 


2.47 


15.4 


.29 


.78 


1.21 


.23 






Sericea lespedeza 


4 


1.92 


10.7 


.18 


.84 


1.04 


.17 






Kudzu leaves 


6 


3.16 


19.6 


.24 


1.45 


2.37 


.34 






Sanfoin 


2 


2.24 


14.1 


.23 


.88 


1.11 


.30 






Winter vetch 


1 


4.20 


26.2 


.31 


2.45 


1.13 


,29 


• . • • 




Grasses - hay stage: 




















Orchard grass 


23 


1.55 


9.7 


.25 


2.45 


.34 


.18 


.0132 


1.80 


Tall fescue 


17 


1.57 


9.8 


.27 


2.26 


.33 


.18 


.0099 


2.93 


Bromegrass 


16 


1.73 


10.8 


.23 


2,23 


.33 


.11 


.0076 


l.*9 


Kentucky bluegrase 


9 


1.78 


11.1 


.23 


1.62 


.39 


.12 


.0071 


2.28 


Red top 


8 


1.16 


7.3 


.23 


1.63 


.39 


.13 


.02*j4 


2.98 


Timothy 


7 


1.38 


8.6 


.22 


1.50 


.30 


.10 


.0075 


1.38 


Heed canary grass 


8 


2.09 


13.1 


.27 


2.72 


.34 


.13 




. . • . 


Tall oatgrass 


4 


1.45 


9.1 


.26 


2.48 


.29 


.09 




1.08 


Canadian wild rye 


1 


1.80 


11.2 


.16 


1.42 


.52 


... 




.... 


Bhodea grass 


1 


1.20 


7.5 


.13 


1.05 


.30 


.05 




4.85 


Side-oat grama 


2 


1.12 


7.0 


.07 


.90 


.39 


.11 




3.55 


Western wheat grass 


2 


1.19 


7.4 


.19 


1.37 


.30 


.10 




. . » * 


Big blue stem 


4 


.78 


4.9 


.17 


.91 


.30 


.10 




a . • » 


Little bluestem 


4 


.81 


5.1 


.20 


.67 


.35 


.13 




. • . • 


Indian grass 


4 


.62 


3.9 


.14 


,76 


.39 


.13 




. . • • 


Switch grass 


6 


.94 


5.9 


.22 


.61 


.39 


.23 




• . » • 



^N ~ 



N - nitrogen; P ~ phosphorus; K 
Mn - manganese; Si - silica. 



■«• potassium; Ca •• calcium; Mg «- magnesium 



~34~ 



Table 14. -"Average Chemical Composition of Forage Crops Grown On 
Strip-Mined Land Over a Period of Years, 1946-51 



No. 


of 


















Species samples 


N 


Protein 


P 


K 


Ca 


Mg 


Mn 


Si 






pet. 


PCt A 


pet. 


PC** 


pet, 


P^t 


££lt 


pct t 


Legumes: 




















Alfalfa 


61 


2.92 


18.3 


.21 


1.69 


1.68 


.42 


.0044 


.057 


Red clover 


45 


2.65 


16.6 


.19 


1.75 


1.55 


.42 


.0087 




Ladino 


38 


3.38 


21.1 


.27 


1.98 


1.48 


.45 


.0016 




Alsike 


39 


2.91 


18.2 


.24 


2.10 


1.30 


.54 


.0144 




Birdsfoot trefoil 


55 


2.70 


16.9 


.21 


1.84 


1.41 


.52 


.0076 




Lespedeza 


40 


2.17 


13.6 


.23 


1.00 


1.09 


.26 


.0085 




Sweet clover, 1st year 


33 


3.24 


20.3 


.23 


1.43 


1.53 


.59 


.0066 




Sweet clover, bloom 




















2nd year 


31 


2.99 


18.7 


.23 


1.77 


1„44 


.44 


.0075 




Mammoth red clover 


11 


2.80 


17.5 


.20 


1.87 


1.51 


.53 






Crimson clover 


2 


2.73 


17.1 


.16 


1.52 


2.14 


.36 






White clover 


8 


3.10 


19.2 


.24 


.97 


1.75 


.55 






Hubam 


13 


2.98 


18.6 


.28 


1.26 


1.38 


.56 






Yellow trefoil 


15 


2.98 


18.6 


.23 


1.96 


1.66 


.54 






Kobe lespedeza 


10 


2.05 


12.8 


.21 


.90 


1.03 


.26 






Sericea lespedeza 


10 


1.85 


11.6 


.17 


.82 


.93 


.24 






Xudzu leaves 


7 


2.70 


16.9 


.33 


2.03 


1.49 


.39 


t • • » 




Austrian winter pea 


1 


3.88 


24.3 


.25 


2.12 


1.30 


.30 


.0010 




Button clover 


1 


2.16 


13.5 


.22 


1.05 


1.24 


.56 


.0175 




Lappacea 


1 


1.42 


8.9 


.18 


.85 


1.82 


.60 


.0360 




Winter vetch 


1 


4.20 


26.2 


.31 


2.45 


1.13 


.29 


.... 




Sanfoin 


2 


2.42 


14.1 


.23 


1.88 


1.11 


.30 


.... 




Crown vetch 


1 


• • • • 


■ • • • 


.15 


1.63 


1.25 


.47 


. . • . 




Grasses: 




















Kentucky bluegrass 


18 


1.68 


10.5 


.23 


1,41 


.34 


.20 


.0093 


1.19 


Orchard grass 


34 


1.67 


10.4 


.26 


2.60 


.42 


.28 


,0244 


2.15 


Alta fescue 


26 


1.59 


9.9 


.26 


2.10 


.41 


.27 


.0200 


2.32 


Bromegraes 


24 


1.71 


10.7 


.22 


2.28 


.44 


.30 


.0154 


1.89 


Timothy 


17 


1.60 


10.0 


.23 


1.95 


.35 


.18 


.0092 


1.00 


Redtop 


21 


1.26 


7.9 


.19 


1.55 


.42 


.22 


.0160 


2.08 


Tall oatgrass 


7 


1.29 


8.1 


.17 


2.30 


.27 


.17 


.0103 


2.93 


Reed canary grass 


10 


2.14 


13.4 


.19 


2.37 


.50 


.26 


. • • . 


• • • • 


Chewings fescue 


2 


2.06 


6.6 


.11 


1.48 


.36 


.11 


. • » • 


• • • • 


Meadow foxtail 


1 


1.66 


10.4 


.18 


2.40 


.38 


.18 


.... 


mm * • 


Switch grass 


7 


.88 


5.5 


.17 


.58 


.55 


.29 


. . & . 


• e • • 


Indian grass 


5 


.66 


4.1 


.10 


.76 


.38 


.18 


.... 


• • • 


Little bluestem 


4 


.71 


4.4 


.17 


.74 


.33 


.13 


.... 


9 » * 


Big bluestem 


5 


.69 


4.3 


.16 


.77 


.30 


.12 


.... 


• • • • 


Canada wild rye 


7 


1.57 


9.8 


.19 


i.21 


.58 


.18 


.... 


• • • • 


Michels grass 


1 


1.84 


11.5 


.24 


.... 


.36 


.15 


.0065 


1.19 


Side-oat grama 


4 


1.01 


6.3 


.07 


.85 


.41 


.15 


.... 


. . • . 


Rhodes grass 


4 


1.36 


8.5 


.18 


1.05 


.41 


.13 


.... 


.... 


Ryegrass 


9 


1.69 


10.6 


.20 


1.88 


.53 


.24 


.... 


.... 


Western wheat grass 


6 


1.34 


8.4 


.19 


1.31 


.40 


.20 


. • . . 


.... 


Love grass 


4 


1.22 


7.6 


.12 


.83 


.24 


.11 


.... 


.... 



~35~ 

grass samples hare been analysed during the 3 year period. Because of the large 
number of samples and the spread over 3 years of the sampling date, the values 
are considered to be reliable. 

However, in studying the chemical composition of plants, it is well to 
keep in mind the influencing factors that may cause variations. Composition may 
vary with species, st^ge of growth, climatic conditions, productivity and mineral 
content of the soil. Internal or external injuries by insects, diseases, rodents, 
animals or weather may also affect the composition of vegetation. 

In discussing the comparisons of the chemical composition of pasture plants, 
Fuelleman (4) states that chemical analyses of forages are valuable as they are an 
aid in the interpretation of pasture experimental results as well as an indication 
of apparent palatabillty. They serve as a basis for comparison of the nutritive 
value of forages. The quantity of protein does not necessarily indicate its 
quality or digestibility; however, it is true that most high protein forages are 
apparently more palatable and nutritious than those containing less protein. 
Similarly, the percentage of phosphorus and calcium are indicators of nutritive 
value, but it does not mean that they are entirely available to the animal. 

Puelleman (4) further states that the percentages of nutrients in a 
sample of forage cut on any given date may vary considerably in comparable samples 
of the same species. This does not imply errors in analysis, in sampling or 
differences due to soil heterogenity. It is reasonable to assume that the forage 
itself may be undergoing changes brought about by the synthesis or desynthesi* 
of material. 

The nitrogen and protein content of the forage as shown in Table 14 
is high. This is especially true of the grasses that must depend mainly on the 
legumes for their nitrogen. The grasses were sampled at the prebloom to early 



-36- 



bloom stage of growth. 

The phosphorus content of strip-mine forage when compared with the 
phosphorus content of that found under Illinois farm conditions as reported in 
Illinois Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin 518 is very high. 4.s discussed 
earlier some have theorized that the phosphorus in the soil is not readily avail- 
able at the high pH levels as shown by the soil tests. If this were true, poor 
plant growth and probably lower phosphorus content of the forages grown on mined 
lands would result. The reverse is true. There seems to be a good correlation 
between the very high available phosphorus content as shown by the soil tests and 
the high phosphorus content of the forages* 

Th« calcium, potassium and magnesium content of the strip-mine forages 
compare very favorably with that grown on Illinois farms. Based on the chemical 
composition as shown, the quality of the forage species growing of strip-mined, 
lands is excellent* 

Botanical Composition: 

A survey of the botanical composition of an established pasture on 
mined lands was made for a J-ye&r period. This area was first seeded in 1938 
with sweet clover, Grasses and other legumes were seeded later c An excellent 
stand of forage has been secured* The measurements were made by using a point 
quadrate. Table 15 shows the frequency that several species contributed to the 
pasture sward and the percent of bare area. 

During the 3 years grasses made up from 65 to 75 percent, the legumes 
from 20 to 25 percent and weeds from 5 to 10 percent of the species represented. 
?roo 6 to 12 percent of the area was bare. Kentucky bluegrass was the dominant 
specie. Bromegrass, sweet clover and alsike clover were the next most abundant 
species. 



-37- 



Table 15 .—Frequency That Several Species Were Represented in the Sward 
and the Bare Area in the Lot 1 Pasture in 1948-49-51 





1946 






1949 






1951 


Species 


April 29 


Oct. 7 


April 2 





Nov. 11 


May 4 


Oct. 31 




pet, 


pct t 


pet, 




pet, 


pct t 


pet, 


Grasses : 


61.0 


66.0 


68.8 




97.8 


71.8 


77.0 


Kentucky bluegras 
Redtop 
Timothy 
Bromegrass 
Wild grasses 


s 36.0 
7.0 
7.0 
9.0 
2.0 


41.0 
7.0 
3.0 

10.0 

5.0 


50.7 
1.6 
3.3 
6.3 
6.9 




65.2 
4.1 
0.8 

15.9 

11.8 


<*6.7 
1.5 
3.0 

14.1 

6.5 


43.6 

2.8 

0.5 

22.1 

5.8 



Orchard grass 



Legume 8 : 


23.0 


Alfalfa 


1.0 


Sweet clover 


11.0 


Red clover 


6,0 


Alslke 


4.0 


White clover or 




Ladino 


1.0 



Weeds: 



Bare: 



8.0 
8.0 



28.0 

0.5 

18.0 

2.0 

7.0 

0.5 
6.0 
6.0 



24.4 



12.1 

2.2 

9.5 

0.6 
6.8 
8.3 



1.1 



trace 



1.1 



12.6 



21,6 



trace 



6.6 
5.9 



2.2 



15.3 






2.5 


1.8 


1.1 


14.1 


4.0 





1.1 


1.6 


trace 


3.9 


4.6 



3.3 



7.7 
9.0 



The use of legumes together with the grasses in strip-mined pasture 
reclamation is very important. Legumes in general are known to have a high 
content of protein and minerals and, therefore, are valuable as a livestock feed. 
The legumes are also capable of fixing nitrogen from the air and making it avail- 
able in the soil. This is especially important on nitrogen and organic matter 
deficient strip-mined soils. That the grasses can and do utilize the nitrogen 
is evident by the growth of grasses obtained and the relatively high protein 
content of the grasses as shown in Table 14. 

As the legumes decrease from the pasture sward due to grazing of live- 
stock and other causes, it is possible to reseed them without extra soil preparation. 
Livestock hoof tracks provide enough exposed soil material on the ridges that the 



-36- 

legume seeds have a chance to grow. Success has been obtained by seeding alfalfa, 
sweet clover, Ladino and alsike under such conditions* 

Animal Gains as a Method of Measuring Yield and Quality: 

During the preceding 3 years, 19^-1950, steers were the livestock 
used to study the value of forage produced on mined lands. Sheep can and are 
being used to graze the mined lands at several locations, (see Figure 6). There- 
fore, it was thought desirable to get some information regarding the possible gains 
and the effect on the vegetation by grazing with sheep. In 1951 a flock of ewes 
and lambs was used to study the value of forage produced on mined lands . 

The strip-mine pasture that was used for this grazing experiment is 
located in Pulton county near Fiatt, Illinois, and is part of the Deep 7alley 
Farm 1 *, land. An area of approximately 12 acres was selected and divided into 2 
nearly equal-sized fields so that rotational grazing could be practiced. The 
area had been seeded in 19^S and 19^9 with a mixture of sweet clover, alfalfa, 
alsike, ^dino clover,, bromegrass, Kentucky bluegrass, tall fescue and timothy,, 
A good cover of grasses and legumes had been obtained 8 Sheep, cattle, and hogs 
had grazed the area prior to the 1951 grazing season. 

Twenty-six ewes and 29 lambs were processed, weighed and marked and 
put on one of the pastures on May 18, 1951* The flock was weighed individually 
on June 20, «. T uly 26 and September 10, 1951 • The results obtained during the 
116-day grazing period and the weights on the several dates are presented in 
Tables 16 and 17. The data show that the lambs made an average daily gain of 
0.?9 pounds and the ewes an average daily gain of 0.07 pounds. The gains made 
by the lambs varied from a low of 0.16 pounds per day to a high of 0.37 pounds 
per day. One lamb was sick at the last weighing and was not included in this 
average. 



~39~ 




Sheep grazing strip-mine pasture lands in Fulton county, 1951* (*i€» 6) 



-•40- 



Table 16. — Data Giving Individual Weights of Lambs During 

the Grazing Season, 1951 









Gain 




Gain 




Gain 


Total 




May 


June 


or loss 


July 


or loss 


Sept. 


or loss 


gain 


Number 


18 


20 


33 days 


26 


36 days 
lb. 


10 
lb. 


46 days 
lb. 


or loss 




lb. 


lb. 


lb. 


lb. 


lb. 


1 


42 


59 


17 


74 


15 


84 


10 


42 


2 


4? 


62 


20 


75 


13 


85 


10 


43 


3 


30 


48 


18 


61 


13 


70 


9 


40 


4 


35 


49 


14 


63 


14 


65 


2 


30 


5 


33 


48 


15 


60 


12 


73 


13 


40 


6 


65 


87 


22 


101 


14 


104 


3 


39 


7 


50 


59 


9 


74 


15 


80 


6 


30 


8 


4o 


54 


14 


66 


12 


77 


11 


37 


9 


25 


40 


15 


51 


11 


56 


5 


31 


10 


35 


46 


11 


59 


13 


65 


6 


30 


11 


32 


47 


15 


59 


12 


62 


3 


30 


12 


35 


52 


17 


64 


12 


69 


5 


34 


13 


40 


48 


8 


61 


13 


67 


6 


27 


14 


52 


64 


12 


76 


12 


88 


12 


36 


15 


45 


54 


9 


67 


13 


70 


3 


25 


16 


36 


52 


16 


65 


13 


67 


2 


31 


17 


37 


54 


17 


70 


16 


79 


9 


42 


18 


40 


56 


16 


66 


10 


71 


5 


31 


19 


34 


49 


15 


62 


13 


69 


7 


35 


20 


39 


55 


16 


71 


16 


71 





32 


21*/ 


53 


67 


14 


76 


9 


57 


-19 


4 


22 


30 


38 


8 


47 


9 


49 


2 


19 


23 


30 


45 


15 


58 


13 


68 


11 


39 


24 


32 


45 


13 


56 


11 


69 


12 


36 


25 


74 


95 


19 


108 


13 


110 


2 


36 


26 


48 


65 


17 


79 


14 


89 


10 


41 


27 


33 


45 


12 


56 


11 


66 


10 


33 


28 


34 


47 


13 


59 


12 


59 





25 


29 


57 


71 


14 


83 


12 


86 


3 


29 


Ave, 28 


40.18 


54.79 


14.54 


67o54 


12.62 


73.86 


6.32 


33.68 


Ave. daily 


















gain 






0.44 




0.35 




0.14 


0.29 



a/ 
' Sick at last weighing, not included in average. 



-41- 



Table 17.— Data Giving Individual Weights of Ewes During 

the Grazing Season, 1951 









Gain 




Gain 




Gain 


Total 




May 


June 


or loss 


July 


or loss 


Sept. 


or loss 


gain 


Number 


18 


20 


33 days 


26 


36 days 


10 


46 days 


or loss 




lb. 


lb. 


lb. 


lb. 


lb. 


lb. 


lbj 


lb. 


2 


121 


134 


13 


134 





142 


8 


21 


? 

»> 


97 


107 


10 


105 


- 2 


102 


- 3 


5 


25 


14? 


148 


1 


156 


8 


155 


- 1 


8 


37 


123 


125 


2 


127 


2 


138 


11 


15 


96 


106 


107 


1 


111 


4 


113 


2 


7 


17 


136 


141 


5 


151 


10 


152 


1 


16 


118 


110 


115 


5 


108 


- 7 


111 


3 


1 


10 


88 


90 


2 


89 


- 1 


91 


2 


3 


4 


85 


78 


- 7 


11 


- 1 


82 


5 


- 3 


11 


70 


66 


- 4 


78 


18 


72 


- 6 


2 


12 


103 


108 


5 


115 


7 


128 


13 


25 


13 


99 


100 


1 


102 


2 


101 


~ 1 


2 


14 


11 


80 


3 


87 


7 


97 


10 . 
-31^ 


20 


22 


140 


149 


9 


156 


7 


125 


-15 


23 


92 


95 


3 


93 


~ 2 


99 


6 


7 


21 


75 


11 


2 


81 


4 


87 


6 


12 


18 


125 


131 


6 


129 


- 2 


130 


1 


5 


26 


118 


114 


~ 4 


129 


15 


128 


~ 1 


10 


27 


103 


115 


12 


110 


- 5 


110 





7 


28 


118 


126 


8 


110 


-16 


121 


11 


3 


19 


124 


130 


6 


130 





133 


3 


9 


35 


119 


125 


6 


119 


- 6 


134 


15 


15 


1>0 


108 


119 


11 


118 


- 1 


121 


3 


13 


33 


92 


96 


4 


99 


3 


104 


5 


12 


34 


127 


126 


- 1 


134 


7 


132 


- 2 


5 


30 


98 


102 


4 


112 


10 


118 


6 


20 


Ave. 26 


107.73 


111.69 


3.96 


113.85 


2.16 


116.38 


2.53 


8.27 


Ave. daily 


















gain 






0.12 




.07 




.06 


.07 



hi 



Eurt 



~42~ 

The flock remained on the first pasture from May 18 to June 20, a total 
of 33 days. During that period the 29 lambs gained a total of 421 pounds or an 
average daily gain of 0.44 pounds. The 26 ewes made a net gain of 103 pounds for 
an average daily gain of 0.12 pounds. A total of 524 pounds was produced from 
about 6 acres. 

The second pasture was grazed from June 20 to July 26, a total of 36 
days. The forage was quite mature but abundant. The lambs gained a total of 366 
pounds and the ewes a net of 61 pounds. A total of 42? pounds was produced from 
the second 6-acre pasture a 

Because of the need for these two pasture areas by the owner , the sheep 
were moved from July 26 to September 10 to another pasture area consisting of 
second-year sweet clover, bromegrass and bluegrass. It was, therefore, impossible 
to rotate the grazing area as planned. Because of these and other uncontrollable 
circumstances, it was thought desirable to end the experiment on September 10« 

Information on the gains made by the livestock is valuable in determining 
the value of strip-mined pasture lands. The first year's experiment with sheep 
revealed many problems, which can be guarded against in future studies. It is 
hoped that the sheep grazing experiment can be repeated and expanded in 1952. 

In 1951 it was again possible to obtain information as to the gains made 
by several lots of cattle grazing on strip-mined lands. One of these was a herd 
of cattle owned by Mr. Byron Somers of Fulton county. During the 1951 grazing 
season, 271 head of steers grazed the 500-c.cre strip-mined pasture range. One 
hundred twelve head were rotated on about 180 acres, which were divided into two 
pastures. The rest of the herd had continued access to the remaining pasture 
acreage. Two animals from this herd died of bloat and two were killed by lightning© 

There were three different groups of steers in this herd. One hundred 



twelve head were 2 year olds. These steers grazed the 180 acres of rotated pasture. 
They weighed an average of 858 pounds per head when turned on pasture on April 
26. On September 20 they weighed 1021 pounds, gaining an average of 163 pounds 
during the 14? days for an average daily gain of 1.12 pounds. These 112 head 
produced 18,256 pounds of beef in the 147 -day grazing period. They were then 
fed ground corn and protein supplement while grazing the strip-mined pastures 
until about December 1, 1951* 

Another lot of 95 yearling steers weighed 524 pounds per head when 
turned on pasture on April 26. They weighed an average of 794 pounds per head 
when taken off the pasture on November 17 after a 204-day grazing season. They 
had gained 270 pounds each for an average daily gain of 1.32 pounds per head. 
These 95 head had produced 25*650 pounds of beef in 204 days. 

The third lot consisted of 64 head of short yearlings purchased in 
August. They weighed 513 pounds per head and were in good flesh. On November 17 
after a 103~day grazing period, they weighed 573 pounds. They had gained 60 
pounds each for an average daily gain of .58 pounds per head. These 64 head 
produced 3»840 pounds of beef in 103 days. 

This herd of 271 head produced a total of 47,746 pounds of beef. This 
production came from about 500 acres or about 96 pounds of beef per acre. In 
addition some credit must be given to the pasture during the time the 112 steers 
were on feed and still grazed the pasture. The pastures could have been stocked 
heavier as there was a goodly amount of forage that was not utilized. Therefore, 
at least 100 pounds of beef were produced per acre from the 500-c-cre pasture 
range. 

During the 1951 grazing season, the Meadowlark Harms, Inc., pastured 
a total of 219 head of yearling steers and heifers on strip-mine pastures in 



Fulton county. The forage was sweet clover, alfalfa, birdsfoot trefoil, brome- 
grass and bluegrass. These cattle made an averege daily gain of 1,6 pounds during 
a 128-day grazing period. Fifteen of the top animals selected from this herd 
placed fourth in the Short Feed Special Carlot Class at the 1951 International 
Livestock show in Chicago. 

The Midwest Radiant Corporation property in St* Clair county is starting 
a livestock program. In 1951 «• herd of 22 head of white-faced steers grazed a 
rather new pasture for 15? days. They gained an average of 201 pounds per head 
for an average daily gain of 1,28 pounds, 

A farmer, Mr. w # Shafer of Maquon, Illinois, pastured 10 head of steers 
on strip-mine pastures in 1951» These steers were purchased in the fall of 1950 
weighing 516 pounds. They were wintered on clover hay and a small amount of oats. 
They were turned on the pasture on May 3» 1951 weighing an average of 682 pounds 
per head. On October 18, 1951i after a 168-day grazing period, the steers weighed 
an average of 904 pounds per head making an average daily gain of 1,32 pounds per 
head, 
ECONOMIC INTERPRETATIONS: 

Methods, Costs and Feasibility of Forage Species Establishment: 

The methods of seeding the mined areas in the past have been hand seeding, 
tractor mounted power seeder and air seeding by airplane and helicopter. The 
length of time required to seed the areas by any method depends to a great extent 
upon the species seeded. The seed of some of the grass species is very light in 
weight and bulky and requires more time to seed. 

Under good conditions the time required to seed an acre by hand has been 
from 1 to 1^ hours. Including all labor and supervisory time, it required about 
25 minutes per acre to seed a prepared area by tractor seeder. In contrast, from 



75 to 125 acres per hour can be seeded by the air method. Whatever method is 
used, complete and thorough application of a good mixture of seed on the whole 
area is of prime importance. 

The total cost per acre varies greatly depending on the kind of seed 
or mixture used, the seeding rate per acre as well as the lebor and type of equip** 
ment used. During the 1951 season, the total costs ranged between $10 and $15 
per acre. 

Accessibility and Management After Establishment: 

There are several degrees to which a mined area may be prepared in 
developing it for agricultural use. If the area is to be developed for pasture, 
accessibility throughout is of prime importance. Some have found it expedient 
to provide access roadways only. The making of roadways has varied to a great 
degree. Usually too few roadways are constructed rather than too many. 

Still others have prepared the area by knocking off the tops of all 
ridges to a width of from 12 to 16 feet with a bulldozer » The advantages of this 
method of preparation are that the area is readily accessible to seed either by 
hand or with tractor mounted seeders, roadways are already made, the management 
and control of livestock are made easier, and the scenery or sky line is improved. 

The highest degree of preparation is to grade the complete area so that 
farm equipment can be driven over the whole area. The physical texture of the 
soil material, the soil reaction and nutrient content, and the eventual land use 
are of prime importance when considering grading. In several areas of Illinois, 
the high percentage of loess and till material, the low percentage of rock, the 
chemical composition of the soil material and the methods of mining appear to make 
grading feasible. 

There are several small areas in the mined lands in Pulton and Knox 



-k6- 



counties that hare a strata of muck-type material of considerable thickness in 
the overburden. This material is very high in organic matter content averaging 
between 7 and 8 percent. Where this material is present and the area is graded, 
a very loose friable soil condition exists. Such graded areas can immediately be 
used to produce tillable crops* Soybeans and wheat seeded on such areas have 
yielded 33 and 25 bushels per acre, respectively. 

It is important in the maintenance of a good pasture area to be able 
to control volunteer trees, shrubs and other forms of undesirable growth. On 
common pasture lands, clipping with a mower is the means of controlling this 
undesirable vegetation. On strip-mined lands left in ridges, the use of the mower 
is impossible. 

The degree to which volunteer trees, shrubs, etc., are a problem on 
these lands is often due to early management of the area. If the area is not 
developed and utilized before volunteer and undesirable growth becomes established, 
the productive capacity of the pasture is reduced. To restore the productive 
capacity this growth must be removed. The slow expensive method of hand cutting 
the undesirable species in many cases does not destroy them permanently since 
many broadleaved species will sprout vigorously and persistently. However, during 
the past several years chemicals have been used to control woody growth. 

Many of the older strip-mined areas in Illinois are dotted with relatively 
large volunteer trees which are detrimental to the development and production of 
good pastures (see Figure 7). The study of methods of killing this growth by the 
use of chemicals that are nonpoisonous to, livestock was started on an experimental 
basis on strip-mine pastures in the late summer, 1951« The study plots are located 
in Pulton county on the Byron Somers strip-mine pasture area. Seven and one-half 
acres of the oldest and most heavily wooded pasture area were treated. 



-47- 




Volunteer tree and other undesirable species such as is shown are detrimental to 
the development and production of good pastures. (Jig. 7) 



Photo Courtesy of C. Adams 



•Jx8<~. 



EXPERIMENT A: 

This experiment was designed to study eight different methods of killing 
trees. Eight one-half acre plots were established. The several herbicides used 
were (1) Ammate (ammonium sulfate), (2) Esteron 2,4,5-T (2,4,5 trichlorophenoxyacetic 
acid, propylene glycol butyl ether ester, 66 percent or 4 pounds per gallon), (3) 
2,k~D (jsopropyl ester of 2,4 dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, 44 percent or 3.3 pounds 
per gallon) and (4) brushkiller (2,4 dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, 2 pounds acid per 
gallon and 2,4,5 trichlorophenoxyacetic acid propylene glycol butyl ether ester, 
2 pounds acid per gallon). The treatments are as follows: Plot 1 - check plot — 
girdling as a means of killing the trees; plot 2 - frill and apply Ammate spray 
(1 pound Ammate per 1 gallon water); plot 3 - notch or cup and apply Ammate crystals 
into the cup, 1.2 pounds crystals per acre; plot 4 - frill and apply 2,4,5-T Esteron 
spray (1 part material per 24 parts diesel oil); plot 5 - basal spray of Esteron 
2,4,5-T (1 part Esteron to 24 parts diesel oil); r l °t 6 - frill and apply 2,4-rD 
spray (1 part material to 16 parts diesel oil); plot ? - frill and apply mixture 
of 2,4,5-T and 2,4-D (brushkiller) spray (1 part material to 16 parts diesel oil); 
plot 8 - basal spray of 2,4,5-T and 2,4-D mixture (brushkiller) spray (1 part 
material to 16 parts diesel oil)* The applications are at rather heavy rates but 
are the recommendations of the manufacturer of the herbicides. 

The frilling consisted of making a single line of ax cuts around the 
tree trunks. The notching or cupping consisted of taking out chips of the bark 
at approximately 6-inch spacing around the tree. All frills, notches and girdle 
work was at a point approximately 30 inches above the ground. The basal spray 
was applied from the ground line up to about 24 inches. The plot layout for 
Experiment A is shown in Figure 8. 

On these plots the number of trees by species and diameter class, the 



-49- 



Figure 6,— Experiment A « Plot Layout for Studying Several Chemicals As a 
Means of Killing Volunteer Trees on Strip-Mine Pasture Lends 



Plot 2 
1 gallon solution for 
60 trees 


Plot 7 
1 gallon solution for 
50 trees 


Plot 4 
1 gallon material for 
62 trees 


Plot 1 
Girdle 


Plot 5 
3,4 gallons on 71 
trees 


Plot 8 
3^ gallons on 86 
plus 13 trees 


Plot 6 

1 gallon solution on 

51 trees 




Plot 3 

6 pounds crystals on 

80 trees 








Plot size jg acre 

104.35 feet x 208. ?1 feel 

8 plots 



Plot 



1 

2 

3 
4 

5 
6 

7 
8 



Treatment 



Girdle 

Prill and Ammate spray 

Notch or cup and Ammate crystals 

Frill and 2,4,5-T spray 

Sasal spray or 2,4,5-T 
Frill and 2,4^D spray 
Frill end brush killer spray 
Basal spray of "brush killer 



Trees per 
plot (J A.) 



Average 
Date of application - July 24-26, 1951 



Labor 
■MT5T" 



66 


105 


60 


80 


80 


79 


62 


72 


71 


40 


51 


70 


50 


52 


86 


47 


65«75 per \ A. or 




132 trees per A. 





•50- 



quantities of material used and the actual time required in applying the materials 
were recorded. This data provides a "basis for calculation of labor and materiel 
costs per acre as veil as the ultimate determination of effectiveness of the 
several treatments. The species and number of trees found on the eight plots 
are shown in composite form in Table 18. On the 4 acres there were 526 trees of 
which 68 percent or 357 were cottonwood, with over one-half of the cottonwood 
falling in the 6, 8 and 10-inch classes. The average diameter was 8.42 inches. 
Elm, willow and sycamore were next mo3t numerous in the order listed. These were 
smaller trees, however, with the majority of the trees in the 2 and 4-inch classes. 
Upon inspection of these plots on August 3t 1951* it was noted that many 
of the tree leaves had turned completely brown on the plots where 2,4,5-T and 
2,4-J) - 2,4,5-T mixture had been used, both on frilled and basal spray treatments o 
Because of this surprising and drastic apparent tilling effect, it was decided to 
study the effect of lower concentration of these materials as shown in Experiment 3, 
Final results of these treatments, however, cannot be made until the growing season 



of 1952. 
Table 18. 



■Composite Table Listing the Species and Diameter of Trees Pound 
in Experiment A (Tree Killing Plots, ^-Acre Plots) 





Average 




















Total 




diameter 


2 


4 


6 


8 
in. 


10 
in, 


12 
in. 


14 
in. 


16 
in. 


r 
pet. 


Lumber 




in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 




Cottonwood 


8,42 


14 


55 


56 


77 


79 


40 


19 


17 


68 


357 


Elm 


3.48 


43 


7 


3 


5 


2 


2 








12 


62 


Sycamore 


4,75 


11 


13 


2 


6 


5 











7 


37 


Box Elder 


5.12 


8 


3 





1 


1 


3 








3 


16 


Ml low 


2.36 


43 


5 


2 

















10 


50 


Crataegus 
























(Hawthorn) 


2.0 


2 























trace 


j 2 


Wild Plum 


2,0 


2 























tr^e* 


i 2 



~51~ 



EXPERIMENT B: 



Early observations with the chemicals as reported in Experiment A re- 
vealed rather rapid apparent killing effects at the concentrations recommended by 
the manufacturer. This experiment was designed to study the effect of lower con- 
centrations of 2,4,5-T and 2,4-D - 2,4,5-1' mixture in oil and in water. Fourteen 
one-fourth acre plots were established near the Experiment A area. The plot 
design used in this study is shown in Figure 9» 

On these plots the number of trees by species and diameter class was 

recorded. The amount of material applied to the number of trees was also noted. 

The species and number of trees found on the 14 plots are shown in composite form 

in Table 19. In this experiment a total of 403 trees were treated. Box elder 

and cottonwood were irost numerous with 39 percent of the trees being box elder 

and 37 percent being cottonwood. The cottonwood was the largest tree with over 

one-half falling in the 6, 8 and 10-inch classes. About 80 percent of the box 

elder were in the 4, 6 and 8-inch classes. 

Table 19«— Composite Table of 14 Plants Listing the Species and Diameter 

of Trees Found in Experiment B 





2 


4 


6 


8 


19 


12 


14 


16 


Total 




in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 




Cottonwood 


8 


18 


15 


28 


33 


19 


13 


15 


149 


Box Elder 


18 


35 


*3 


49 


10 


3 








158 


Elm 


25 


7 


12 


4 


2 


1 





1 


52 


Willow 


15 


2 




















17 


Crataegos 


22 























22 


Sycamore 


1 


1 





1 














3 


Ash 


1 























1 


Peach 


1 























1 
403 



^52~ 



Figure 9.— Experiment B - Variations in Concentration and Application of 
2,4~D, 2,4,5~T and 2, 4-1) - 2,4,5-T Mixtures in the Killing of 
Volunteer Trees Growing on Established Strip-Mine Pastures 



104.35 



a 

o 



! 

1 

Plot 14 


Plot 1 


Plot 13 


Plot 2 


Plot 12 


Plot 3 


Plot 11 


Plot 4 


Plot 10 


Plot 5 


Plot 9 


* 
Plot 6 


Plot 8 


Plot 7 



Plot size - j acre 
(104.35 feet x 104.35 feet) 
14 plots 

T reatment and concentration 

Prill and spray 2,4,5-T and water 
Plot 1 ratio - 1:96 

2 1:72 

3 1:48 

4 1:24 

Prill and spray 2,4,5-T and diesel oil 
Plot 5 ratio - 1:96 

6 1:72 

7 1:48 

Basal spray 2,4,5»-T and diesel oil 
Plot 8 ratio - 1:60 
9 1:48 

10 1:36 

Basal spray brush killer and diesel oil 
Plot 11 ratio - 1:60 

12 1:48 

13 1:36 



Basal spray 2,4—D and diesel o 
Plot 14 ratio - 1:48 

Total number of trees 



oil 



Average 



28.5 x 4 * 114 trees per acre 



No. of trees 



30 
32 
38 
23 



20 
25 
25 



37 
26 

33 



28 
25 
31 



26 

399 
28.5 



August 8-9, 1951 



-53- 

A tabulation of all the treatments used, the amount of material applied, 
the labor required and the total cost of the several chemicals is presented in 
Table 20. The total cost ranged from $2.58 to $4.86 per acre. The most expensive 
treatment was a mixture of 2,4— D - 2,4,5-T applied as a basal spray in diesel oil 
at a 1:16 concentration. The total cost was $4.86 per acre. On the basis of 
this study the labor required to apply the spray as a basal application was about 
lj hours per acre while the girdling of the trees required about 3i hours per acre. 
While the results of the treatments will not be known until the next growing season, 
it appears from this study and recommendations made by the Illinois Agricultural 
Experiment Station (6) that a mixture of 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T in a mixture of oil 
and water applied as a basal spray will be most practical from the labor end total 
cost standpoint. 

Utilization of Strip-Mined Lands: 

The utilization of a strip-mined area is dependent upon several factors. 
From rough pasture lands the returns are dependent upon the gains made by the price 
received for the livestock that graze the area. Such areas can be utilized by 
cattle, sheep and hogs. Graded or leveled areas may be used for grain and hay 
production as well as grazing. Therefore, the returns from graded areas would be 
affected by the yield and price received for the grain and hay as veil as the 
price of the livestock. 

toore mined acres are being used each year. According to the Illinois 
Coal Strippers Association at the present time, January 195? » about 54,000 acres 
have been strip-mined in Illinois. Approximately 35»000 acres or 64 percent have 
had some reclamation work done on them. Twelve thousand acres have been reforested 
with 12,000,000 trees and another 2,500 acres have been covered by volunteer tree 
growth. Sixteen thousand acres h«ve been seeded to grasses and legumes for pasture 



n 


cc 

P 

U 

o 

X> 

d 
.h 



+* 00 

o o 

Eh O 



Pi 

CO 

o 

o 



~54~ 



U 
o 

0] 03 

U p 

© O 

p Xi 



^ cdl 



o 



u 

PJ 

X) 





CO 

o 
o 



I 

si 



O- Ow nO H Os 
• c • • • 

c\i cm cn. CA CM 



c"\ en c*"\ cn, en 
CN NO (^rif^ 

o o o o • 
CM CM CM CVj CM 



O GD O O 
CM CN CNJ CM 



o 

CM 



CM CM CM CM CM 



NO CO r-i 



O- On 

-4- cm en o- *n 



CO NO CD en O 

• • e • • 

CM -* (""N l*> CN 



C\ CM CM CM CM 
Cn^" -* ^J- ^t 

o o o o o 



CM CM CM CM CM 



NHHrlri 



r-i NO CO C\. O- 

VT\ CM C» On NO 



r-l NO CO NO CO 

O-OO CM On f>- 

• • • • • 

cn-fr r% CM CM 



Cn CM CM CM CM 

en ^t ■$■ -* -4- 

• © • • • 

CM «H rH rH rH 



O vr\ \r\ \r\ w\. 
CM CM CM CM CM 



O NO CD O -* 

-J 00 NO NO CM 

• • • • • 

m CM CM CM cn 



CM 



C"\ C\ Cn CN. cn 

en cn cn en cn 

• o o « • 
CM CM CM CM CM 



O O O O O 
CM CM CM CM CM 



CM CM CM CM CM 



^ 



,3 



^0 



-* NO 



O m vr* o- 
C- *n en cm 



•J 



€r> 



<T\ CM >-t r-i 



rH CN r-i r-i r-i r-i 



p 






rH 






CT> 






*-> 


+» 




U 




5 


• 
r-i 


+> 

tf 


o 

£ 


8 


s 


«s 





a 




o 


o 






•r* 




#H 


+> 




CO 


tf 


o 


0? 


rH 


•H 





■P 


4* 


•H 


a 


CO 


"O 


u> 


u 




o 






c 




r~ 


o 







o 




f 



a 

o 
c ee 

*» O ««-i 
0J iH 

iS Pi 

P. 

as 



Si 

u * 
i a) «a 

X> 4* 
3 O 



•p 



r-l 




4> 

a 

u 

£ C4> 

^ x 

(X 



e 

rC 



CM 

CM • CM CM CNJ 

rH 



CMVAVfN.\TiU-\ CM\nW\U-\.Vf> CMCMCMCMCM 



Q 

u 

o 



rH 05 
03 +» 
tU) 00 

r-i O 



CM 



CM 



on cm cn-a no 



no no no op o 
rH rH cn-3F 



NO 



rH rH rH 



NO 

rH 
• • 



-4- 00 CM NO 
CM -3f CV ON 



rH DO r-i r-i r-i 

U P r-t U U 

Vt O «h «h <h 



r-4 cd o5 cS o3 

•h o o o n 

rH cd ad oj «5 

<HP ^D P P 



6h ^ Eh 
CD I I I 

4> P \A ^^ vA 

■b «k * 
-^ ^t ^ 

<1 <J CM CM CM 



vr\ ia vr, vr\ vr\ 

^- ^t .j- ^- ^ 

CM CM CM CM CM 



»H Cj (d Cd (J 

vH CO CO 09 • 

U cC tf «?. oJ 

<M P r5 ^5 P 



"53333 

CM CM CM CM CM 

* * ♦ l> 4 
E, ^ E, E, Ej- 

\TV \f\ \T\ \T\ \T\ 

^ -4- ^ -^ -* 

CM CM CM CM CM 



Jh J-, W, tn fn 

^ "H "H Vl <r) 



&< e« e.< E/^-i 

vr ^ tA \T\ vr\ Q 



CM CM CM CM CM 



< '«& < t°. rl 



Vf .ffffj ey 



1 1 ? F ? 1 



CMO^TO-nO vr>\T\OON0C CN-OOf^vCMrH 



^ c ? *? °. > -f 



co o 

• » 

CM CA 



CM O 

rH CA 



VTV O 
CM CN. 



rH m 



NO 
ON rH 



U"\ 



5 



to M 



» 



^o 



i s 

• o 

CM C 



21 



rH 



Pi 

00 c 
4» 

CM CM 

~Sl 

4> 

CS •• 

H§ 

nH rH 

O rH 

CCS 

rH bu) 



CO r-. 


n-t P, 
T3 

00 

c c 

O 

rH O 
r-i 

CO CM 

h +* 

c! 

rH 
O T* 

00 o 

a 

CM rH 
rH 
■rr> 

+» n-l 
CO T3 

01 •• 

♦» G 
O O 



C CO 

ttf 

rH Pi 

cd 
vr\0 

rH 

c • 
•H On 

1 ♦» 

U-, 

^t « 

• Ih 

CM 

rH 

C rH 

O <H 

i3S 

CO CO • 

* m o 



CD * * 

•htJP 
«o C I 

,oo- 

PjCM 

U 

c 



c 
o 



r-l 




o 


n 



o 

Pi 
CM 



C 
•H 

a 
*» 
a 
o 

o 

XI 

o 

•H 



o 

rH 



ti 09 

& 

PirH 

Pi 



H 4» &H 

O C I 

«M WN. 

o • 

c ^a- 

or\ • 

CM CM 

*»*| 

(h CO 



C 

o © 

r-i U 

ri, p" 

O 

t»D X\ 



C Pi 
«H 

o 
c c 

o • 



Pi 


o 

X 



p 
o 







Pi 

•♦* 

c 


rH 

cd 

> 

•H 

C^ 




C) 
CC < 



G 
O 







H 


>» 


n-l 


0* 




V 


4D 








U 




CO 


VL> 


4» 


>o 


P. 


00 

o 


§ 


Q 


o 


o 



VA o 



i 





o 

X 

o 

53 



P- I 

no 
• 



rO| O 



i ^1 



-55- 

development. Of this 16,000 acres, 11,000 acres are now "being actively used for 
pasture, hay production, small grains or orchards. Thirty-five different farm 
units are utilizing the 11,000 acres 
DISSEMINATION OF INFORMATION: 

The unbiased dissemination of facts obtained in this study is a phase 
that deserves considerable effort. Education is probably the best method of 
getting a good reclamation program. The educational job in this case 5s twofold. 
First the strip-mine operators and second the public need to be convinced of the 
potential value of the stripped-over lands and that the raw land is not necessarily 
forever a wasteland. 

Information concerning the findings of the strip-mine project has been 
disseminated through two methods. Copies of the annual report have been sent to 
various libraries, ferm management companies and individuals who have expressed 
interest. It is of interest to note that copies have been sent to Department of 
Agriculture libraries in Lngland and Canada as well as the Library of Congress in 
Washington and to several state libraries. 

During the past year the strip-mine reclamation project has been discussed 
over Radio Station WILL. Two 10 to 15 minute discussions were broadcast to the 
listeners of the University radio programs* 



-56- 



Bibliography 

1, Auten, J. T. Black: locust, pines and sassafras as "builders of forest soils. 

Central States Forest Experiment Station Technical Note No. 32. 19^1. 

2. Eurlison, W. L. Long-season pastures for Illinois. Illinois Agricultural 

Experiment Station Circular 682. June 1951* 

3» Croxton, W, C Revegetation of Illinois coal stripped lands. Ecology, 
Vol. IX, No. 2. 1928. 

4. Fuelleman, R. F. and Burlison, W. L A comparison of yields and composition 

of some Illinois pasture plants. Journal of American Society of Agronomy, 
Vol. 32:24>255. 19^0. 

5. Limstrom, G. A. Extent, character and forestation possibilities of land 

stripped for coal in the Central States. Central States Forest Experiment 
Station Technical Paper 109. 19^8. 

6. Slife, F. W., Hackleman, J. C« and Scott, V. 0. Weed end brush control 

recommendations for 1952. Illinois Agricultural Experiment Station Mimeo. 
AG1526. 

7. Stauffer, R. S. Infiltration capacity of some Illinois soils. Journal of 

American Society of Agronomy 30:^9>-500. 1938. 

8. Guide for soil conservation surveys. USDA Soil Conservation Service. 1948. 

9. Hunger signs in crops. A Symposium - American Society of Agronomy and the 

National Fertilizer Association, Washington, P. C. 1951 • 



-57- 



Outline 

I. Soil investigations 

A. Mechanical analysis 

B. Soil analysis 

(1) Boron added 

C. Organic matter of materials 

D. Adding limestone to acid stuff 

E. Total content of sulfur, etc. 

F. Grading of strips-mine land 

(1) Table of availability 

(2) Infiltration 

(3) Slope measurement 

G. Microbiological studies 
II, Forage species studies 

A, Species adaptation - aggressiveness of grass 

(1) Alfalfa varieties studies 

B Mixtures ** kinds and effect as shown by botanical analysis 
C. Use of grain and seed crops 

(1) Wheat 

(2) Soybeans 

III. Determination of forage yields and quality 

A. Forage yields 

3. Chemical composition 

C. Animal gains 

(1) Sheep project 

(2) Other cattle projects 

IV. Economic interpretation 

A. Methods, cost and feasibility of species adaptation 

B. Accessibility and management after establishment 

(1) Tree killing study 

C. Utilization of mined land 
V. Dissemination of information 

AFG:mlm 
2~29~52 






THE POTENTIALITIES OF REVEGETATING AND UTILIZING 
AGRONOMIC SPECIES ON STRIP MINED AREAS 

IN ILLINOIS 



A PROGRESS REPORT 
COVERING THE SIXTH YEAR OF WORK ON A COOPERATIVE INVESTIGATION 

CONDUCTED BY 
UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS, AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION 

AND 
ILLINOIS COAL STRIPPERS ASSOCIATION 



NOTE 

The agreement covering this investigation provides that:— "No account of a co- 
operative research project shall be published by the sponsor or by any other agency, ex- 
cept upon approval of the division of the University, or head of the department in which 
the work is being done." 

Permission for the reproduction of this report has been granted with the understand- 
ing that it is to be released for the confidential information of members of Illinois Coal 
Strippers Association only, and not to be quoted or released for publication. 



— 



THE LIBRARY OF THE 

JUN 3 1953 

UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS 



Telephone CEntral 6-7044 

ILLINOIS COAL STRIPPERS ASSOCIATION 

307 NORTH MICHIGAN AVENUE 
CHICAGO 1, ILLINOIS 

WILLIAM H. COOKE A. J. CHRISTIANSEN 

PRESIDENT SECRETARY-TREABURER 

CARL T. HAYDEN FOREWORD 

VICE PRESIDENT 

To Members of Illinois Coal Strippers Association 

Gentlemen: 

On February 1, 19U7* Illinois Coal Strippers Association 
entered into an agreement with the Agricultural Experiment Station, 
University of Illinois, covering a project of cooperative research 
into the possibilities of revegetating and utilizing grasses and 
legumes on strip mined areas for stock range and other purposes. 

This project was originally set up on an estimate that it 
would require five years of research in order to arrive at sound 
conclusions. It has, however, been extended for three more years 
and is now entering upon its seventh year. A progress report cover- 
ing the first year of operation was issued on March 19, 19U8 dealing 
principally with the proposed scope and plan of attack on the prob- 
lem; a survey of spoil bank soils found throughout the state, and 
preliminary reports on a number of seeding projects. The second 
report was issued on March 15>, 19U9; the third report was issued on 
March 6, 1950; the fourth report was issued on March 1, 1951 > and 
the fifth report was issued on April 1, 1952, presenting further in- 
formation on spoil bank soil materials, and comparisons of such ma- 
terials with surface soils found on adjoining land; the adaptation 
of various forage species to spoil bank soils; the results of pre- 
liminary studies of comparative gains made by animals pastured on 
spoil banks with those pastured on undisturbed blue grass and highly 
improved grass-legume pasture and the utilization of stripped land 
for pasture. 

The report here presented covers the sixth year of operation. 
A consolidated final report, covering the first five years of the pro- 
gram is being printed as a bulletin of the University of Illinois 
Agricultural Experiment Station and should be available in the near 
future . 

The studies to be made during the three year period will 
carry on the uncompleted work of the present research program and, 
in addition, will include several other phases of the strip mining 
problems dealing with grading, types of overburden, compaction, 
drainage, organic matter content, pasture carrying capacities, 
pasture management, weed and brush control, etc., and a report will 
be issued each year as the program progresses. 



>.A UA,> 




March 25, 1953 



i.b 









AGRONOMY PROJECT 



NUMBER: 

TITLE: 

OBJECT: 



LEADERS: 



1003 - Sixth Annual Report. 

Agronomic Land Use Research on the Mined Areas 
of the Stripped Coal Lands of Illinois. 

The objectives of the project are to investi- 
gate the potentialities of revegetating 
and utilizing agronomic species on the strip- 
mined areas in Illinois. 

A, L. Lang, J. A. Jackobs, J. N. Spaeth, and 
R. R. Snapp. 



Advisory Committee: 

Dean R. R. Hudelson 

M..B. Russell 

F. C. Bauer 

J. C. Hackleman 

J. N. Spaeth 

A. J. Christiansen 

Louis S. Itfeber 

Agronomist - Edward A. Thurn 



AGRONOMIC LAND USE RESEARCH ON THE MINED AREAS , 
OF THE STRIPPED COAL LANDS OF ILLINOIS 
by Edward A. Ihurni/ 

2he sixth annual report of progress on Agronomy Project 1003, covering 
the investigations of the potentialities of revegetating strip-mine lands with 
agronomic crops is herewith presented* This is a cooperative research project 
of the University of Illinois Agricultural Experiment Station and the Illinois 
Coal Strippers Association. 

The sixth annual report covers the first year of a new three-year 
project designed to study basic principles of agronomic species on graded strip- 
mined land. Included in this report is a study of some physical and chemical 
properties on graded strip-mine land. The research of the previous five years 
was primarily devoted to the general development of the strip-mined areas. 
The research for the past year has been confined to graded areas primarily in 
western Illinois, and has been limited to fewer areas so that more detailed 
information could be obtained. 

The author acknowledges the assistance of Mr. L. S. Weber, Land Use 
Engineer, Illinois Coal Strippers Association. Without his cooperation many 
of the research plots could not have been established. Also grateful acknow- 
ledgment is given Mr. Alten F. Grandt, Midland Electric Coal Corporation, for 
his cooperation and his technical experience in the strip-mine areas and to 
Dr. R. S. Stauffer, Associate Professor in Soil Physics, for his guidance and 
suggestions of the work plan. 

In the past six years, experimental research has been carried on at 



i/Assistant, Soil Fertility, Department of Agronomy, University of Illinois, 
Agricultural Experiment Station, Urbana. 



-2- 

25 different locations in 1U counties. Figure 1 shows the general location 
where these plots have been established* 

INVESTIGATIONS OF PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF THE SOIL 

As of December 31, 1952, 1,6U8 soil samples have been collected from 
the experimental plot areas and all have been tested by the University of 
Illinois Soil Testing Laboratory. Table 1 shows the average amounts of avail- 
able plant nutrients in the soil. The over-all average of these tests shows 
an acidity range in pH of 2.1 to 8*5, with 75 percent of these samples ranging 
in pH from 5»7 to 7»3. The average available phosphorus is 136 pounds per 
acre, and the available potassium is 169 pounds per acre. Two hundred and seven 
soil samples were taken and tested in 1952. These samples did not vary from 
the over-all average any appreciable amount. 

In addition to the samples taken from the plot areas over hSO field 
samples have been taken. The results obtained are very similar to those ob- 
tained from the plot areas. 

Most of the soil tests taken in 1952 were from graded areas (Fig. 2). 
As on ungraded spoils, wide variations frequently occur within small areas. 
But in spite of these variations it is of primary importance to thoroughly 
sample and test the soil of an area to determine its potential possibilities. 

One of the essential elements for good forage growth is boron. It 
is a trace element which has received very little attention. However, legumes, 
especially alfalfa, are very sensitive to a boron deficiency. The fifth annual 
report gives the boron content as being very high. Samples taken this year in 
the same general area give only a medium test. The results, which were analyzed 
by the Soil Testing Laboratory at the University of Illinois, are listed in 
Table 2. 



•3- 

AGRONOMY DEPARTMENT, UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS, URBANA 



Sl' 



C >al Companies 
Southern Illinois 



arm 

to 
orsytfte-tfilli^ms on 

-tf.T. Elkville 

HUB. Fidelity 

!>-^yramid 

Southwestern 

2)-£eninole 

'•■Midwest Radii 



Western Illinois 



5-Bolar 
2>Kej 

\k* Morgan 
ID- Little Si{ 



1L»U.E. Buc] 
1M.E. Cuba 
lfrhT.T. Fiatt 
Fair view 
•M.S. Rapatee-f 
••Little John 



kthern Illinoi s 
M.E. Sheffield 

1 J-Morris 
1 J-Horthern 

2 Hrfilmington 
2 .-Northern 

E tstern Illinola 

? ^sAyr3 lAli , e«flai , 3attan 




ILLINOIS 



JCALC- STATUTE MIL13 



o m to 



M379 



Location of Experimental Plots on Strip-Mined Coal Lands in Illinois 

(Fig. 1) 



-u- 



J 



Jt «to 




I * 



jr 






> .* 



Foreground, freshly leveled area being prepared for a new seeding. Background, 
unleveled spoils. (Fig« 2) 



-5- 



Table 1.— Soil Test Analysis of Spoil Bank Material 



1 III 


i iii i i i ii ■ 


Number 






pH range 


Phos- 


Potas- 






of 


Acidity 


of 75 


per- 


phorus 


sium 


Plot location 


County 


samples 


pH range 


cent samples 


average 


average 








L 


H^ 


L 


H 


lb.B? 


lb.*/ 


Southern Illinois 


















Sahara 


Saline 


5U 


2.5 


7.0 


2.9 


6.0 


90 


169 


Delta 


Williamson 


65 


3.1 


8.2 


U.7 


7.9 


92 


13U 


Forsythe -William- 


Williamson 


23 


2.5 


8.2 


U.9 


7.5 


178 


169 


son 
Truax, Elkville 


Jackson 


55 


3.U 


7.8 


5.0 


7.U 


117 


173 


U.E. Fidelity 


Perry 


89 


2.3 


8.3 


3.9 


7.9 


151 


206 


Pyramid 


Perry 


65 


U.o 


8.2 


6.6 


7.9 


93 


160 


Southwestern 


Randolph 


3U 


U.9 


7.8 


6.7 


7.7 


82 


138 


Seminole 


St. Clair 


10 


7.2 


7.7 


7.U 


7.7 


126 


168 


Midwest Radiant 


St. Clair 


175 


iu3 


8.5 


6.2 


8.2 


116 


131 


Subtotal and averages 


568 


2.3 


8.5 


U.9 


7.9 


115 


157 


Western Illinois 


















Solar 


Schuyler 


12 


U.U 


7.6 


6.5 


7.2 


171 


22U 


Key 


Fulton 


16 


6.9 


8.0 


7.3 


7.9 


107 


103 


Morgan 


Fulton 


15 


6.5 


7.8 


6.7 


7.7 


185 


216 


Little Sister 


Fulton 


U9 


6.9 


8.0 


7.2 


7.9 


169 


189 


U.E. Buckhart 


Fulton 


U8 


6.9 


8.1 


7.3 


7.9 


125 


133 


E.E. Buckhart 


Cuba 


U8 


6.7 


7.8 


7.2 


7.7 


i5o 


160 


T.T. Fiatt 


Fulton 


150 


6.U 


8.3 


7.U 


8.0 


160 


158 


Fairvlew 


Fulton 


5U 


2.7 


7.9 


6.2 


7.6 


1U3 


172 


Midland 


Fulton-Knox 237 


5.5 


8.2 


7.0 


7.8 


159 


167 


Little John 


Knox 


87 


2.9 


8.3 


U.6 


7.9 


17U 


192 


M.S. Atkinson 


Henry 


38 


6.9 


7.7 


7.0 


7.5 


17U 


188 


Pioneer 


Peoria 


16 


2.7 


7.7 


6.8 


7.6 


165 




Subtotal and 


averages 


770 


2.7 


8.3 


7.0 


7.9 


158 


169 


Northern Illinois 


















M.E. Sheffield 


Bureau 


89 


6.1 


8.1 


7.1 


7.8 


152 


217 


Northern Illinois 


Grundy ^tfill 


2.U 


8.1 


3.0 


7.6 


1U2 


192 


Morris 


Grundy 


28 


2.6 


6.5 


2.6 


3.7 


8U 


1UU 


Wellington 


Will 


32 


3.U 


8.5 


7.U 


8.3 


56 


170 


Northern Illinois 


Kankakee 


Uo 


U.7 


8.1 


7.5 


8.1 


110 


18U 


Subtotal and 


averages 


276 


2.U 


8.5 


3.2 


7.9 


125 


191 


Eastern Illinois 


















Harmaitan 


Vermilion 


3U 


2.1 


8a 


bl 


M 


59 


192 


Total and averages 


16U8 


2.1 


8.5 


5.7 


7.3 


136 


169 



2f Low and high pH 

y P - 92 lb./A, high; K - 150-200 lb./A, high. 



«»o«» 



Table 2.— Special Soil Test Report for Available Boron 



Company 


County 


PH 


Available 
phosphorus 


Available 
potassium 


Available 
boron 

1,00 
1.25 


Boron 
rating 


Midland Rspatee 


Knox 


7.7 

7.3 


190 

208 


Ili6 
300 


Medium 
Medium 


T.T. Fiatt 


Fulton 


7.U 
7.3 


208 
208 


200 
158 


2.00 

1.25 


Medium 
Medium 


Little Sister 


Fulton 


7.7 
7.U 


159 
200 


Ho 

235 


1.25 
1.00 


Medium 
Medium 


Midland 


Fulton 


7.2 
7.3 


156 
123 


152 
152 


1.25 
1.25 


Medium 
Medium 



There are many factors that could be in part responsible for this 
rapid change in boron content. First and probably the most important factor 
is leaching • Boron is a mobile ion. This ion is similar to nitrogen, in that 
it moves freely in soil solution. Any mobile ion is subject to severe leach- 
ing, especially when the quantity is high in the soil. This does not mean, 
however, that boron will be deficient in the near future. Crop removal also 
depletes the available boron in the soil but it is not normally removed very 
rapidly by cropping. Very few boron analyses have been made, and for this 
reason, the above data may not give an accurate representation of the spoil 
banks* Although the soil tests have shown a range in available boron from 
medium to very high, no plant toxicity or deficiency has been observed in the 
field. At this time there is no concrete evidence as to why there is such a 
wide variation of boron in the soil material. 

Mechanical Analysis 

Mechanical analysis, (1) or the measurement of soil particle size, 
lis very important in determining the future potential of the spoil banks. One 
can see the rock, shale, and some sand. However, in respect to plant production, 



-7- 



the smaller particles are of greater importance* This analysis determines the 
quantity, in percent by weight, of sand, silt, and clay* This size distribution 
was obtained by analyzing the less than 2 mm* fraction of the soil material* 
The particle sizes of the above classifications are: sand - 2 ram* to 0*05 mm*, 
silt - 0*05 to 0*002 mm*, and clay 0*002 mm* and less* Table 3 gives the par* 
tide size for some graded areas in western Illinois* 
Table 3*— "Mechanical Analysis of Strip-Mine Soil Materials on Graded AreasSr 



Company 



Sand Silt Clay 
2 mm* to 0,05 mm* to 0*002 mm* 
County 0*05 mm* 0*002 mm* and less 



Soil class*/ 



Somers pasture 


Fulton 


32*3 


15.7 


22*0 


Loam 


Little Sister 


Fulton 


15.2 


5U.8 


30*0 


Silty clay loam 


Fairview 


Fulton 


11*7 


U.5 


Ui.8 


Silty clay 


Midland 


Fulton 


12 *U 


53.3 


33.8 


Silty clay loam 


T*T. Fiatt 


Fulton 


20.U 


U3.8 


35.3 


Clay loam 


U*E* BucJehart 


Fulton 


U*J* 


51.8 


30.8 


Silty clay loam 


Midland 


Knox 


17*9 


I16.I4 


35.3 


Silty clay loam 


Fairview 


Fulton 


19.0 


38.1 


12*9 


Clay 



—'The results in this table are composite ssrtples from five sample areas* 

b/ 

-'Based on texture* 

There is no significant difference in the mechanical analysis of graded 
and ungraded areas* A farm soil having a classification of silt loam, which 
is a very common soil class, has an approximate range in particle size of 10 
to 20 percent sand, 50 to 60 percent silt, and 20 to 30 percent clay* Most 
of the strip-mined land contains slightly more clay than this* 

The small particles, or clay, are very important in that they are the 
main storehouse for plant nutrients* Clay particles are directly related to 
the capacity of a soil to supply nutrients to the plants* However, a soil, can 
be too high in clay causing undesirable physical conditions* Too much clay 
can cause high plasticity, low aeration, high rate of compaction, and low 



-8- 

permeability* The water-holding capacity of a soil is determined by the amount 
of clay particles and the organic matter content* Since organic matter is 
I deficient in the spoil banks, clay particles play an important role in water- 
Iholding capacity. 

Mechanical analyses of the different strata in the high wall are 
listed in Table h* These analyses illustrate the particle size of the material 
in the different strata* Further information will be submitted later in the 
paper* 

Permeability and Physical Studies 

Prior to grading the use of spoil bank areas is limited primarily 
to forestry, grazing, and recreation* After grading, when farm machinery can 
be used, crop land becomes a possibility* When the spoil banks are graded, 
and a more diversified utilization is possible, physical conditions become more 
important* Drainage, permeability, compaction, and puddling undergo changes 
in the process of leveling* 

Leveling of spoil banks and vegetative growth causes a change in 
permeability of the soil material* On unleveled areas, where the land was 
bare and the material was a silty clay texture, the percolation rate was 9*29 
inches of water per hour* On similar areas covered by vegetation for years, 
the rate was 13*57 inches per hour (2)* These rates are classified as r'oid 
and very rapid, respectively, by the Soil Conservation Service* Table 5 gives 
the results obtained in western Illinois on some of the leveled research plots* 

The percolation rates given in Table 5 are much lower than results 
previously mentioned on similar but unleveled spoils* Apparently leveling re* 
duces the rate of percolation, which is due to compaction during leveling and 
perhaps to some extent to settling* 



-9- 



1/ 



Table k* — Mechanical Analysis of Highwall Strata 



Company 


Strata 


Sand 


Silt 


Clay 


Soil class 




Tops oil 


8.6 


60.0 


31.U 


Silty clay loam 


Midland 


Lower Peorian loess 


1.0 


72.9 


26.2 


Silt loam 


Electric 


Sangamon loess 


5.0 


58.6 


36.U 


Silty clay loam 


Fulton 


Glacial till 


11.2 


6U.U 


2U.U 


Silt loam 


county 


Yellow shale 


16.6 


U6.0 


37. »4 


Silty clay loam 




Blue shale 


1U.8 


53.2 


32.0 


Silty clay loam 




Tops oil 


5.6 


62.U 


32.0 


Silty clay loam 


Fairview 


Lower Peorian loess 


• • * . 


72. h 


27.6 


Silty clay loam 


Fulton 


Sangamon loess 


9.8 


hi. 6 


Ii2.6 


Silty clay 


county 


Glacial till 


US.!* 


25.0 


29.6 


Sandy clay loam 




Yellow shale 


26 i4 


U5.8 


27.9 


Clay loam 




Grey shale 


.... 


62. h 


37.6 


Silty clay loam 




Topsoil 


5.U 


59.0 


35.6 


Silty clay loam 


Truax- 


Lower Peorian loess 


13.9 


60.0 


26.1 


Silt loam 


Traer 


Sangamon loess 


26.8 


39.U 


33.8 


Clay loam 


Fulton 


Glacial till 


19.U 


33.8 


36.8 


Clay 


county 


Grey shale 


. . • • 


37.2 


62.9 


Clay 




Blue shale 


.... 


76.0 


2U.0 


Silt loam 




Topsoil 


7.6 


69.6 


22.8 


Silt loam 


Little 


Lower Peorian loess 


3.8 


61.2 


35.0 


Silty clay loam 


Sister 


Sangamon loess 


• . • . 


81.0 


19.0 


Silt loam 


Fulton 


Glacial till 


21.8 


33.6 


3li.6 


Clay 


county 


Yellow shale 


7.6 


U3.U 


19.0 


Silty clay 




Blue shale 


.2 


32.8 


67.0 


Clay 




Topsoil 


7.U 


71.6 


21.0 


Silt loam 


Midwest 


Lower Peorian loess 


1U.8 


68.9 


16.U 


Silt loam 


Radiant 


Sangamon loess 


6.8 


71.2 


22.0 


Silt loam 


St. Clair 


Glacial till 


32.2 


39.6 


28.2 


Loam 


county 


Grey shale 


17.6 


52.5 


29.9 


Silty clay loam 




Topsoil 


6.1 4 


78J4 


15.2 


Silt loam 




Lower Peorian loess 


16.6 


5U.li 


28.6 


Silty clay loam 


Seminole 


Glacial till 


33.8 


33.2 


33.0 


Clay loam 


St. Clair 


Yellow shale 


20.U 


71.2 


12.6 


Silt loam 


county 


Grey shale 


1.8 


U6.6 


51.6 


Silty clay 




Black shale 


1.2 


1*5.6 


53.2 


Silty clay 


U.E. 


Topsoil 


ll.li 


75.3 


13.3 


Silt loam 


Fidelity 


Lower Peorian loess 


9.6 


6U.8 


25.6 


Silt loam 


Perry 


Yellow shale 


lu2 


18.6 


li7.2 


Silty clay 


county 


Grey shale 


21.6 


Wi.U 


3U.0 


Clay loam 




Topsoil 


5.U 


71.0 


23.6 


Silt loam 


Southwestern 


Lower Peorian loess 


37.2 


35.6 


27.2 


Clay loam 


Randolph 


Glacial till 


8.2 


62.2 


29.6 


Silty clay loam 



-10- 



Table 5 ♦—Percolation Rate, Pore Space, and Volume Weight of Leveled 

Areas in Western Illinois^ 



Company 


County 


Depth 
of sample 


Vol, 
wt. 


Perco- 
lation 


Total 

pore 

space 


Capillary 

pore 

space 


Noncapil- 
lary pore 
space 






in. 




in,/hr. 








Midland^ 


Knox 


to 3 
9 to 12 


1.37 
Uh9 


1.52 
.17 


1*7.8 
1*5.0 


39.2 
1*0.3 


8.5 
1*.7 


U.E, EuckhartS/ 


Fulton 


to 3 
9 to 12 


1.56 
1.1*9 


.69 
.37 


12.0 

1*5.5 


37.0 
38.8 


5.0 
6.9 


Midland^/ 


Fulton 


to 3 
9 to 12 


1*31* 

1.56 


.26 
.15 


1*5.5 
1*1.8 


38.3 
38.9 


7.2 
2.8 


T,T. Fiattg/ 


Fulton 


to 3 
9 to 12 


1.36 
1.72 


.21 

.21* 


1*7.5 
37.9 


39.3 
35.8 


8.2 
2.1 


Little Sister£/ 


Fulton 


to 3 
9 to 12 


1.31 
1*1*8 


1.50 

•12 


1*7.1 

1*3.7 


37.3 

1*1.6 


10.1 
2.1 


Fairviewf/ 


Fulton 


to 3 
9 to 12 


l.hl 
1.62 


.53 
.57 


1*8.1* 
1*1.2 


39.9 
36.9 


7.9 
5.9 



y Each depth is an average of seven samples 
-/ Leveled in 191*7 - four years of alfalfa 
^Leveled in 1950 - two years of alfalfa 
^Leveled in 1952 - bare, planted to corn in 1952 
-'Leveled in 1952 - bare, planted to corn in 1952 
£/box cut spoil leveled 1951 - volunteer growth 
W Leveled 1951 - one year wheat 

The following table has been set up by the Soil Conservation Service 
to classify the permeability rates in soils (3). 

Permeability Percolation inches per hour 

Very slow less than 0.05 

Slow 0.05 to 0.20 

Moderately slow 0.20 to 0.80 

Moderate 0.80 to 2,50 

Moderately rapid 2.50 to 5.00 

Rapid 5.00 to 10.00 

Very rapid more than 10.00 



-11- 

The percolation on graded areas that have been analyzed ranges from slow to mod- 
erate which does not differ greatly from the percolation rates of most Illinois 
soils* 

Table 5 shows higher volume weight in the 9 to 12 inch layer* The 
average of this layer is 1.56 compared to 1*39 for the to 3 inch layer* Per- 
colation average is 0*79 in the to 3 inch layer compared to 0*27 in the 9 to 
12 inch layer* Total pore space averages U6*U and 1*2.5 in the to 3 and 9 to 
12 inch layers, respectively* Noncapillary pore space averages 7»o" and U*l in 
the to 3 and 9 to 12 inch layer* 

Total pore space is that part of the entire volume occupied by soil 
material not actually taken up by solid particles* As the clay content in- 
creases the total pore space generally increases, but the noncapillary pore 
space is likely to decrease* Pore space is of great importance since water and 
air relationships depend upon it* Soils with too low noncapillary porosity do 
not drain satisfactorily* 

The total porosity is not so important for characterizing the 
structural properties of soils as is the relative distribution of the pore 
sizes (!*)• The noncapillary pore space is the sum of the volumes of the large 
pores, which will not hold water tightly by capillary* They are normally filled 
with air and are responsible for the air capacity and ready percolation of the 
water through the soil* Capillary porosity is the sum of the volumes of small 
pores that hold water by capillary. They are responsible for the water-holding 
capacity of the soil. A soil could have $0 percent or more total porosity with 
about equal amounts of capillary and noncapillary porosity (li). This distri- 
bution of total pore space might be found in very young or in very sandy soils* 
Many well drained soils in Illinois range from 3 to 8 percent noncapillary pore 
space (5)* 



-12- 

The footnotes of Table 5> give the vegetative history of the individ- 
ual fields. The following table gives the average of some of the physical 
measurements in Table 5 comparing alfalfa plots and bare corn plots « 

All volume weights on alfalfa plots 1»L8 

All volume weights on bare plots 1.K9 

Percolation to 3 inch layer alfalfa plots 1.1.1 

Percolation to 3 inch layer bare plots .21; 

Percolation 9 to 12 inch layer alfalfa plots #27 

Percolation 9 to 12 inch layer bare plots .20 

Noncapillary pore space to 3 inch layer alfalfa plots 6 # 8 
Noncapillary pore space to 3 inch layer bare plots 7.7 

Noncapillary pore space 9 to 12 inch layer alfalfa plots 5«8 
Noncapillary pore space 9 to 12 inch layer bare plots 2.5 

Volume weight shows no difference between vegetative and bare areas. The sur- 
face layer under vegetation shows a significant difference in percolation. 
However, the 9 to 12 inch layer shows little increase for vegetation. Noncapil- 
lary pore space shows little variation in the surface layer between vegetated 
and bare areas. In the 9 to 12 inch layer, however, the noncapillary pore 
space is substantially higher in the vegetated plots. 

The samples for this study were taken by the 3-inch core method (6). 
Some difficulty is encountered in sampling the material by this method because 
of its heterogeneous nature. However, it is the author's recommendation that 
this phase of the study should be continued. 

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE STRATA IN THE HIGHWALL 

The spoil banks are made up of a mixture of materials from different 
strata which occur above the coal. The percentage of each strata found in the 
upper portion of the spoil banks depends upon the thickness of the particular 
stratum as well as upon the method of mining. A study of the characteristics 

/ 



-13- 

of the strata and the proportion of each occurring in the overburden, coupled 

with the method of mining should furnish information on the amount of each 

strata occurring on or near the surface of the spoil banks. This information 

is of value in determining the best land use for these areas* 

Samples of each stratum from the surface of the soil to the top of 

the coal were taken in order to make some chemical tests and also mechanical 

analyses. These samples were also studied in the greenhouse to determine their 

ability to support plant growth. The following table shows the classification 

of each stratum and its approximate thickness. 

Classification Depth 

ft. 

Topsoil, normally plow depth 0-1.5 

Lower Peorian loess 0-16=/ 

Sangamon (Farmdale) loess 2-9 

Glacial till 5-30 

Yellow shale) 

Gray shale ) variable depths U— 50 

Blue shale ) 

Rock 0-25 

-* This depth includes all Peorian loess 

The thickness of the individual strata varies with the total depth 
of the overburden and also with location. As the overburden becomes thicker 
the shales generally become thicker. The upper strata also vary in thickness 
but to a lesser extent than the shales. 

Table 6 illustrates the chemical analysis of the samples taken in 
the highwall. 



Tops oil 


5.0 


7.0 


15 


Lower Peorian loess 


5.2 


7.7 


27 


Sangamon loess 


7.0 


7.9 


1U 


Glacial till 


Wi 


7.9 


8 


Yellow shale 


7.2 


8.3 


9 


Gray shale 


7.6 


8.1 


6 


Blue shalefy 


7.3 


8.3 


7 



-Hi- 
Table 6 ♦—Chemical Analyses of Samples From Individual Strata 

pH Available phosphorus 

Strata acidity range ?■£/ ?^/ Available potassium 

W Wf 1WA. lb./A. lb./A« 

22 215 
U4O 209 
10ii 180 
87 188 
109 196 
122 268 
200 30U 

2f?± - exchangeable - readily available to the plant 

-2 f ?2 - total available phosphorus 

2/Lcw and high 

-/Unpublished data by G. Deithschman and J. W. Neckers (10) 

The topsoil is usually leached of the more soluble constituents. This 

varies according to the previous management and fertilizer program. However, 
the surface soil material, which includes all the loess, is in general high in 
plant nutrients. The glacial till is variable in that the Ulinoisan till is 
highly weathered and leached. The more recent Wisconsin till, which is not 
found south of Peoria county, is not so highly weathered. The shales are nor- 
mally alkaline and high in phosphorus and potassium. The shale layers are very 
similar in characteristics except that the upper shales are more weathered which 
causes the variation in color. The above table indicates less phosphorus and 
potassium in the upper shales than in the lower shale. 

The mechanical analysis of the highwall samples are illustrated in 
Table 7. 



-15- 



Table 7 •—Mechanical Analysis of Strata in the Overburden^ 







Soil separates 








Sand 


Silt 




Clay 




Strata 


2.0-.05 mm. 


.05-.002 


mm. .002 


mm, and finer 


Soil class 


Topsoil 


7.U 


68.lt 




2k.h 


Silt loam 


Lower Peorian 












loess 


12 J* 


59.5 




27.8 


Silty clay loam 


Sangamon loess 


10.9 


60.7 




28.1 


Silty clay loam 


Glacial till 


25.3 


Uo.5 


6 


31.3 r 


Clay loam 


Yellow shale 


lii.7 


51.6 




33.7 


Silty clay loam 


Gray shale 


8.2 


U8.6 




1*3.2 


Silty clay 


Blue shale 


2.1 


U8.9 




50.7 


Silty clay 



i? Averages from Table k 



A mixture of the above strata makes up the material in the spoil banks* It 
cannot be foretold what percentage of each stratum will make up the mixture of 
the upper portion of the spoil, because the method of stripping is a factor in 
this determination. Good, productive soils usually contain a mixture of sand, 
silt, and clay. Those containing a relatively high percentage of silt and 
sand usually drain well and are well aerated. Such soils are less subject to 
puddling and compaction than those containing a high percentage of clay. On 
the other hand, soils containing a high proportion of clay are easily puddled 
and may become very compact and impervious to water unless managed so as to 
retain a granular structure. Clay particles are very small and plate or disk- 
like in shape and can be fitted -very closely together, thus forming an impervioi 
mass. This is what happens when clay soils are tilled too wet. Therefore, it 
is reasonable to assume that where shaly material makes up a considerable portic 
of the surface layer of spoil banks, great care must be exercised in working 
and leveling the material or a compact unproductive soil will result. 

The clay mineral types in the shale are for the most part illite, 
kaolinite, and chlorite. The quantity of the different clay mineral types 



-16- 

vary widely within the state* Illite has been found in all of the shales. It 
will range from about UO to 100 percent of the clay content. Kaolinite is 
usually found in southern Illinois and ranges from to U0 percent* Chlorite 
usually ranges from 20 to U0 percent (7). The clay mineral illite is desir- 
able in our Illinois soils. Kaolinite is not as desirable as illite, but this 

/ 
clay mineral can form good productive soils. Chlorite is the first of these 

minerals to break down, and it is not as important in soil formation. 

The weathering or disintegration of the shales is for the most part 
very rapid, T /flien placed in water, a 7-pound sample with a rock hardness of 
2.0, completely broke down in 3 to U hours. It is noted in the field that the 
shales decompose very rapidly. 

A study of the strata in the highwall was made in the greenhouse. 
Samples of each stratum were placed in gallon jars. Nitrogen was added to each 
jar at the rate of approximately 100 pounds of the element per acre. Alfalfa, 
ryegrass, and corn were planted. In all cases the alfalfa and ryegrass germinated. 
In five of the corn samples, the seed rotted before germination. Alfalfa did 
not continue to grow on samples with a low pH, but it did grow on the other 
samples. The ryegrass grew on all samples. Corn, however, was retarded in 
growth and the plants did not have a healthy appearance. 

Figures 3 and k indicate that, in general, forage crops are more 
adaptable to the individual strata than corn. They also indicate that the per- 
centage of each strata in the upper portion of the strip-mined lands are a 
factor in their potential productivity, 

FORAGE CROPS £^ 

Leguraes and grasses continue to be the principal crops best adapted 
to the spoil banks. Some crops are better adapted geographically than others. 
A seeding mixture of alfalfa, brome, and orchard grass appearsto give the best 



-17- 



B(tst \ \ 



K' 



ifotmsffif***' 



*4*V* 



'»- 



Ij&st- 






J 



- 









v 






S^f 



N 






ZS? 









**A'"Vi". 



o 
o 

EH 



/> 





i «l fa mt &. 









CO 
CO 

cu 
o 



•H 

Jn 
O 

CU 
Pl, 

U 

I 





18- 



<^ 






rH 

o 

V 








■ 








i-l 

aJ 
XI 

CO 

d) 

pq 



—19 




Fig. k Corn growth on individual strata within the same highwall. The strata 
are from left to right top soil, lower Peorian loess, glacial till, 
yellow shale, grey shale, and blue shale. 



-20- 

results for western Illinois • Birdsfoot trefoil is well adapted, but it cannot 
withstand severe competition in pasture establishment • It has proven success- 
ful when seeded with red clover, Ihe longevity of birdsfoot trefoil is its 
greatest attribute* Once established, it will compete with weeds and other 
undesirable plant species ♦ Figure 5> shows a well established stand of birdsfoot 
trefoils It is particularly good on unleveled areas because once established, 
it furnishes good pasture for many years* Ladino clover is very well adapted 
and it is very palatable and good animal gains can be made, but due to the 
possibility of bloat, it is not recommended in the above seed mixture* Fescue, 
bluegrass, and timothy are also well adapted. 

Alfalfa, lespedeza, fescue (Ky. 31 and Alta), and orchard grass makes 
a good seed mixture for southern Illinois, Birdsfoot trefoil is also well 
adapted in this part of the state. Since southern Illinois has a longer grow- 
ing season than the rest of the state, there is a possibility of year round 
grazing* The University of Illinois experiment station at Dixon Springs has 
carried out some research work on winter pastures. These experiments showed 
that a mixture of Ladino clover and fescue grass would maintain beef cows through- 
out the winter. These pastures were grazed from October to May. It was deter- 
mined that lj acres of pasture would maintain one beef cow. The only supple- 
mentary feed fed was hay when snow and ice prohibited grazing. These animals 
did not gain any weight during this grazing period, but neither did they show 
a loss. However, greater gains were made by these animals on the following 
spring and summer pasture than by animals wintered in a drylot. 

Alfalfa variety studies were established by Grandt (8) in 1950 and 
193>1« Eleven varieties were established on graded areas in nine different 
locations. The object of this study was to determine what alfalfa variety or 



-21- 






*%i 



\^ 




Good stand of birdsf oot trefoil 



(Fig. 5) 



-22- 



varieties were best suited for the strip-mined areas ♦ Due to reseeding, physical 

destruction, and grazing, only two locations are still intact ♦ 

The two plots studied this year were both seeded in the spring of 

1951* Climatic conditions for the following winter were favorable for alfalfa 

winter survival. It will require many years to show which variety is best 

suited for the mined lands • Table 8 gives the plant survival and the l°5l 

winterkill, for plots in southern Illinois. Even though winter conditions were 

not severe, some varieties show a very high mortality rate. They consist 

mainly of nonhardy types. The varieties with high mortality rates are becoming 

infested with weeds, and it is expected that by next year these varieties will 

produce lower yields and lower quality hay. The varieties with a small amount 

of winterkill are well established with little or no infestation of weeds. 

Table 8.— Plant Survival and 195l Winterkill for 
Alfalfa Varieties in Southern Illinois 

Number of live Death loss 

Variety plants per sq. ft. per sq. ft. 

perct. 

2.2 


l.U 
7.6 

1«9 

2U.8 
37.2 

Table 9 gives the average and individual alfalfa yields for southern 
and western Illinois. The average production for the different varieties shows 
no significant difference. The number of plants per square foot is in most 
cases quite high. Four alfalfa plants per square foot are adequate for good 
production, on highly fertile soil, as long as weeds can be controlled. Wilt 
resistant and winter-hardy varieties should continue to show good yields while 



Roswell 


9 


Buffalo 


13 


Kansas Common 


11 


Chilean 


6 


Hatch 


10 


India 


5 


Africa 


3 



-23 



the other species not so well adapted will reduce yield* 

Table 9.— 1952 Average of Individual 
Alfalfa Yields 



Variety 












Yield 


Individual yields 


for 


southern 


Illinois 














T./A. 


Buffalo 












1.9 


Roswell 












1.7 


Hatch 












1.6 


Kansas Common 












2.3 


Chilean 












1.8 


Africa 












1.U 


India 












1.6 


Individual yields 


for 


western 


Illinois 


Buffalo 












5.5 


Roswell 












5.5 


Hatch 












5.2 


Chilean 












5.2 


Africa 












5.2 


India 












5.7 


Average yields 


for southern and 


western 


Illinois 


Buffalo 












3.7 


Roswell 












3.6 


Hatch 












3.U 


Chilean 












3.5 


Africa 












3.3 


India 












3.7 



The low yields in southern Illinois were primarily due to the very 
serious drouth. Only two cuttings w*»re taken and the second cutting had suf- 
fered severely from lack of moisture • Previous data show uiat under normal 
climatic conditions, the southern Illinois spoil banks are quite capable of 
producing good quality, high yielding legumes and grasses. 

In western Illinois the winter survival of the southern alfalfa 
species was very high. The lack of winterkill in western Illinois was probably 
due to climate and not to species • Since population, or thickness of stand, 



-2U- 



was very similar for all varieties, a field observation showed little difference 
in growth. The yield of three cuttings of hay substantiates this observation* 
Samples were taken for the fourth cutting on October 8, 19$2* This cutting 
yielded from 1*2 to 1*6 tons giving one variety a total yield of 7«2 tons for 
the season* Ihe fourth cutting was not included in the year's average, because 
it is impractical to cut hay at this time* This would result in a lack of food 
reserve in the roots causing a high winter mortality rate and a reduced growth 
the following year* 

Legume and grass plots have been established under different fertility 
rates to determine whether or not longevity and yields can be increased* Fig- 
ure 7 describes a nitrogen study on alfalfa, brome, and birdsfoot trefoil* Ihe 
series of fertility rates are set up in triplicate and the species are random- 
ized. A blanket application of 300 pounds of 0-20-20 fertilizer was applied 
so that phosphorus and potassium would not be a limiting factor in plant growth. 
Variable rates of nitrogen were applied, see Figure 1 9 to determine what effects 
could be derived from nitrogen* These plots were seeded on April 11, 1952* 
Yields were not taken this year since the first season's growth was not adequate 
for yield determinations* Little or no difference was observed in thickness 
of stand in the fall of 1952 due to nitrogen* 

Growth did show a response to nitrogen on bromegrass seeded without 
legumes* When grasses and legumes are seeded as a mixture, the grasses show a 
better growth than when seeded alone* For this reason the response of grass 
in the mixture to nitrogen fertilizer cannot be determined. Stand and yield 
determinations will be made in 1953> and at this time more information will be 
obtained* 



-25- 




Alfalfa establishment on graded area in western Illinois. 



(Fig. 6) 






-26- 



Figure 7«— Nitrogen Study on Legumes and Grass 






















10 

30 

60 

90 

120 


Alfalfa 


120 
90 
60 
30 
10 



Alfalfa 


30 

10 



120 

90 

. 60 


Birdsfoot trefoil 






Alfalfa-brome 


Alfalfa-brome 


B» trefoil-brome 






B* trefoil-brome 


B. trefoil-brome 


Alfalfa 






Birdsfoot trefoil 


Birdsfoot trefoil 


Alfalfa-brome 






Alfalfa-brome 


Alfalfa-brome 


Birdsfoot trefoil 






Alfalfa 


B« trefoil-brome 


Alfalfa 






B» trefoil-brome 


Birdsfoot trefoil 


Alfalfa-brome 




fll 


Birdsfoot trefoil 


Alfalfa 


B. trefoil-brome 




u 


Alfalfa 


B« trefoil-brome 


Birdsfoot trefoil 




<D 

1 

o 


Birdsfoot trefoil 


Alfalfa-brome 


Alfalfa 




Alfalfa-brome 


Alfalfa 


Alfalfa-brome 




s 


B # trefoil-brome 


Birdsfoot trefoil 


B« trefoil-brome 




o 
u 

-p 

•ri 


Birdsfoot trefoil 


B# trefoil-brome 


Alfalfa 






Alfalfa 


Alfalfa-brome 


Alfalfa-brome 






Alfalfa-brome 


Birdsfoot trefoil 


B» trefoil-brome 






B» trefoil-brome 


Alfalfa 


Birdsfoot trefoil 






Alfalfa 


Birdsfoot trefoil 


Alfalfa 






Birdsfoot trefoil 


B» trefoil-brome 


Birdsfoot trefoil 






B» trefoil-brome 


Alfalfa 


Alfalfa-brome 






Alfalfa-brome 


Alfalfa-brome 


B» trefoil-brome 






Birdsfoot trefoil 


Birdsfoot trefoil 


Alfalfa-brome 






B« trefoil-brome 


B. trefoil-brome 


Alfalfa 






Alfalfa-brome 


Alfalfa-brome 


B» trefoil-brome 






Alfalfa 


Alfalfa 


Birdsfoot trefoil 





-27- 



Figure 8 describes a fertility study to determine the plant growth 

response to nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium* 

Figure 8 «— Fertility Study of Nitrogen, 
Phosphorus, and Potassium on Alfalfa 
and Birdsf oot Trefoil 



0-0-0 



a/ r - c £/-o 



0-8-0 



8—8-8 



8-0-8 



0-0 



-82/ 



0-8-8 



8-0-C 



8-0-8 



8-8-8 



8-0-0 



0-8-8 



0-0-8 



0-8-0 



8-8-0 



0-0-0 



a/ 

-'Equivalent to 300 pounds of a 20 percent 

nitrogen fertilizer per acre* 

«2r Equivalent to 300 pounds of superphosphate 
per acre* 

c/ 

— Equivalent to 100 pounds of muriate of 

potash per acre* 
These plots were seeded on April 29, 1952* Yield and stand studies will be 
made in 1953* There was no apparent variation in growth in the first season 
due to fertilizer* 



-28- 

GRAIN CROPS 

When spoil banks are graded there are more possibilities for utili- 
sation* ?arra machinery can be used which makes the growing of grain crops 
possible. This in turn requires a crop rotation. On freshly leveled areas 
it appears now that it is advisable to grow grasses and legumes for some time 
before adopting a crop rotation. Just how long this interval of time should 
be is not known at present • A tentative long-time cropping plan should be 
made for each individual graded area and as more information is accumulated, 
changes in the planning can be made to fit the situation* 

There are several reasons why grasses and legumes have a beneficial 
effect on freshly graded areas « These species provide a good environment for 
a rapid increase in bacteria. They tend to increase the degree of aggregation 
and stability in the soil. The organic matter formed in the soil by these 

species increases permeability which allows better drainage and aeration. A 

y 
few years growth of legumes and grasses plan an important role in greatly re- 
ducing crusting and puddling. The root penetration is a means of opening up 
this soil material allowing a deeper water penetration. 

Wheat, rye, and barley have proved successful in most instances 
when seeded immediately after leveling. It is possible to seed these species 
in the fall as a nurse crop for the spring seeded legumes and grasses. In 
this manner it is possible to produce a cash crop while establishing the 
legumes and grasses. It must be remembered that if the nurse crop is too 
successful, and therefore competitive to the grasses and legumes, the initial 
objective of establishing legumes and grasses will be defeated. The legumes 
and grasses can be seeded in the fall with the nurse crop, but due to the 



-29- 



0mm 



UAjMM 




V ' 



■ : *■** «j^B*M~ ' "**'." - Oil'-* 



• j 



• 72£ S 



j<-. 







Wheat yielding 30*5 bushels per acre on freshly graded strip-mined land in 
western Illinois, (Fig. 9) 



-30- 




.. { rf"? ^ "*i ■ '/*• 



Good stand of alfalfa immediately after the removal of wheat nurse crop. 

(Fig. 10) 



-31- 

possibility of a crust forming on the soil which prevents the seedling from 

coming up, this procedure is not recommended. This crusting or compacting is 

primarily due to the lack of organic matter and poor soil structure. This 

situation is developed by the soil drying out after a heavy rainfall* If the 

seedlings break the surface before this happens, a good stand usually results. 

Wheat yields taken from two areas in western Illinois yielded 19.1 

bushels per acre and 30.5 bushels per acre. This average yield of 21^.8 bushels 

per acre was grown under good climatic conditions. The alfalfa seeded in these 

areas shows an excellent stand when 19.1 bushels of wheat per acre were grown, 

but the area producing 30.5 bushels of wheat had a poor stand of alfalfa. 

These were not experimental plots and consisted of approximately 70 acres. The 

following wheat yields are an average for three years. 

Table 10.— Average Wheat lields for 
Strip-Mined Land 



Year Yield 



bu»/A. 

19U9 2U.5 

1951 18*0 

1952 2L8 

Average 22+1; 

The wheat yielding 30*5 bushels per acre had a protein content of 12 .1* percent 
and the weight was 62 pounds per bushel. These results show this wheat to be 
of high quality. 

Soybeans were seeded in the spring of 1952 on a newly graded area. 
Figure 11 illustrates the fertilizer applied to this area. There was no notice- 
able difference in growth due to the above fertilizer applications. The manure 
plots were somewhat better, but in no case did the plants have a normal growth. 



-32- 

These plants did mature and form seed pods even though the average height of 
the plant was approximately ll± inches. These plants were affected by root rot 
caused by Rhizoctonia solani . This disease is not common in Illinois but is 
aggravated by cool, wet weather in the early spring (9)* The root rot may have 
been in part responsible for poor growth, but other factors were also responsi- 
ble. Yield data were not taken from these plots. The soybeans were plowed 
down and this area was seeded to fall alfalfa. 

Figure 11 •— Fertilizer Application on Soybean Plots 



Check 
P a/ 

Calfide£/ 
Manure^/ 



n/ 



20QS/ 



100 



a/, 

-' U00 pounds of superphosphate per acre. 

b/ „ • 

-'150 pounds of muriate of potash per acre. 

2/l,l50 pounds per acre. 

-/lO tons per acre 

e/ 

-/ Pounds of elemental nitrogen 



-33- 

Since corn is one of the better cash crops grown in Illinois, more 
work was done with this crop than with other cash crops on the graded areas ♦ 
Six areas were planted in corn in 1°52 producing an average yield of U3 bushels 
per acre* Two of these areas yielded no production and they are averaged into 
the above yield* The yields for the individual areas ranged from to 86 bushels 
per acre. This wide range in yield can be explained in part by presenting the 
history of these areas. 

In all cases the results from the soil tests indicated the pH, phos- 
phorus, and potassium to be high and very high. In some instances, the areas 
were alkaline. The mines where the plots were established furnished machinery, 
fertilizer, seed, and much of the labor. 

Three -J-acre plots were established on the Little Sister mine. Funk's 
Hybrid Seed Company furnished the seed and planted two of these areas. On one 
plot 800 pounds of an equivalent of 20-20-20 fertilizer were broadcast per 
acre and worked into the soil. Two hundred and forty pounds of 6-12-12 per 
acre were applied as starter fertilizer. This plot averaged U6 bushels per 
acre. The next plot received 500 pounds of 20-0-0, 250 pounds of 0-20-0, and 
150 pounds of 0-0-60 fertilizer per acre broadcast. Again 2U0 pounds of 6-12-12 
were used as a starter fertilizer. This plot produced an average of 53 bushels 
per acre. These spoil banks were leveled in 1950 and one years growth of Sudan 
grass had been grown on the area. 

The third plot of this series was established on a box cut spoil that 
had been graded in 1950. The previous vegetation was volunteer growth which 
consisted mostly of weeds. This area had less rock and shale and more loess 
and till in the spoil bank mixture than average. The chemical analysis of this 
plot had a pH range of 7»3 to 7«7> an average available phosphorus reading of l83> 



and a potassium reading of 17U pounds per acre. The yields and fertilizer ap- 
plication are illustrated in Figure 12 • 

Figure 12.— 1952 Yield and Fertilizer Application 
on Corn Plots on the Little Sister Mine 



c 

<D 
bO 
O 

u 

-p 



Check 



2$c£/ 



160 



80 



U6.Q2/ 


76*3 


75a 


91.9 


58.7 


U6.6 


U7.6 


1*8.7 


83.1 


80.1 


98.? 


108.7 


63.7 



P£/ 



*$/ 



PK 



-* Corn yield per acre. 

-^Pounds of elemental nitrogen per acre. 

2/ Equivalent of 300 pounds of superphosphate per acre, 

—'Equivalent of 100 pounds of muriate of potash per acre, 



-35- 




Poor corn growth on freshly graded areas • 



(Fig. 13) 



-36- 

The yield of the check plot with no fertilizer applied produced U6 bushels per 
acre. An analysis of the yield shows an increase for an application of nitrogen. 
The phosphorus and potassium plots with variable rates of nitrogen do not show 
any definite yield response. The individual yields under varied fertility rates 
are so variable that a specific response to the various fertilizers cannot be 
accurately determined from these data. 

This variation in yield was due in part to some causes that are not 
as yet completely identified. When these corn plants were approximately 12 
inches tall, the top growth developed symptoms that were similar to a phosphorus 
deficiency. These plants were analyzed in the laboratory and gave a high test 
for phosphorus, potassium, and magnesium. The plants were stunted in growth 
and many of the leaves were damaged. In about 10 days the plant overcame these 
symptoms and started to grow. During this period some of the plants were re- 
moved in order to observe root structure. The roots were strong and sturdy, 
and formed a good root system. However, the conditions mentioned above, weak- 
ened the corn plants. At a later date these plots were infested with the 
northern rootworm. This infestation was also found in surrounding fields. 
It is now known to what degree the rootworms reduced yield, but they did cause 
a reduction in root support and much of the corn was down at the time of 
harvest. 

Two more areas were selected for corn plots. These were newly graded 
spoils with no previous vegetative growth. Fertilizer applications of many 
variations were applied. On the area established on the Truax-Traer mine at 
Fiatt, 10 tons of manure per acre were applied to one series of plots. These 
plots were crossed with variable rates of nitrogen. All of the plots in this 
area developed symptoms similar to the area on the Little Sister mine. This 



-37- 








v"*A 



fc*V" 







Upper, corn growth after four years of legumes, 
spoils. Lower, close-up of the same field. 



Foreground freshly leveled 

(Fig. 1U) 



-38- 

corn produced tassels and silks when the stalk was 3 J to h feet tall, but there 
was no yield of grain* The manure plots were somewhat better than the other 
plots, but they did not mature adequately to develop grain* The soil con- 
ditioner, ''Calfide", was applied as was nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium* 
It was observed that, if anything, Calfide repressed plant growth. The other 
area, established on the Midland Electric mine produced results very similar 
to the previous plots* Sections of these plots were treated with the minor 
elements zinc, copper, boron, manganese, iron, and molybdenum* The amounts of 
these elements needed for plant growth are extremely small. An equivalent of 
20 pounds p^r acre of each of these elements were sprayed on the corn foliage* 
No response was obtained by these applications, and it is probable that none 
of these elements was a factor in creating the above symptoms* All plots were 
treated with variable rates of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium. No corn 
was produced on any of these plots* 

The last area where corn plots were established has a different back- 
ground* This area was leveled in 19U7* In 1°!$ one-half of the area was seeded 
to alfalfa and one-half to sweet clover* This alfalfa remained on the field 
with the exception of 1950 when a hay crop was removed* The alfalfa and sweet 
clover were plowed in the spring of 1952 and the area was planted to corn* 
Twenty variations of fertilizer were applied in quadruplicate making a total 
of 80 plots. This series of fertilizer application was randomized so that 
factors other than fertilizer could be reduced to a minimum* These plots are 
illustrated in Figure 15* The average number of corn plants per acre was 10,U20* 
This population is a little low, and could be a factor in reducing production* 
The average yields of the replicates under different fertilizer applications 
are given in Table 11* 



-39- 



Figure 15*— Fertilizer Application on Corn 



160 
UO 



120 



80 



120 



ko 



80 



160 











































& K£/ PK 


































,. 









K PK 



N 

Uo 










120 










80 





















160 













P 


K 


PK 





80 










10 










160 





















120 








i 



PK 



K 



N - 






pounds of elemental nitrogen per acre* 

the equivalent of 300 pounds of superphosphate per acre* 

the equivalent of 100 pounds of muriate of potash per acre* 



-liO- 



Table 11 ♦— Yields of Com on Leveled Area 
in Western Illinois 1952 





?y 


k£/ 


PK 





Average 




bu./A. 


bu./A. 


bu./A 


• bu./A 


• bu./A. 





91.02/ 


82.2 


8U.1 


92.5 


87.5 


uqS/ 


86.3 


85.0 


93.5 


86.7 


87.9 


80 


92.3 


77.U 


81.9 


72.5 


81.0 


120 


93.6 


85.6 


97.9 


83.U 


90.1 


160 


101.9 


92.2 


98.5 


79.3 


92.9 


Average 


93*0 


8U.5 


91.2 


82.9 





i? 300 pounds of superphosphate per acre* 

2/ 100 pounds of muriate of potash per acre. 

2/ Average corn yield of three replications. 

2/ Elemental form of nitrogen - pounds per 
acre. 

The statistical analysis of these data shows no significant increase 
in yield when nitrogen was applied at the given rates. This means that the 
previous vegetation that was returned as green manure along with the root system 
of that vegetation accumulated enough nitrogen in the soil that the nitrogen 
was not a limiting factor in yield. When potassium fertilizer was added, there 
was no increase in yield. When phosphorus fertilizer was added, there was a 
significant increase in yield. 

The pH of this soil material was 7.5. The available phosphorus read- 
ing was very high. As the pH increases the phosphorus equilibrium tends to 
move toward the easily acid soluble state causing the exchangeable or plant 
available phosphorus to be reduced. Since the soil test reads a given amount 
of acid soluble and exchangeable phosphorus, it is possible to get a high 



-la- 

reading under this condition, and not have a high plant availability. This 
could be a reason for the increase in yield when phosphorus fertilizer is applied. 
A complete analysis of the data shows no significant interaction between nitrogen 
and phosphorus when applied to the same plot* However, the heavier applications 
of nitrogen did cause some increase in yield even though it was not significant. 

The increase in yield on the phosphorus fertilized plots over the 
nonphosphorus fertilized plots was 8.1; bushels per acre. These results are from 
only one area for one year, and more data must be accumulated before any ac- 
curate fertilizer recommendation can be made. It is questionable from the above 
data as to whether an application of phosphorus fertilizer is economical. 

TREE KILLING EXPERIMENT 

In 1951 tree killing experiments were initiated on strip-mine land. 
The fifth year progress report presented detailed information on the establish- 
ment of these experiments including plot layout, herbicides used, rates and 
methods of application, number of tree species by diameter, class, and cost 
studies. Final results of these experiments will be available after the 1953 
growing season. 

An interim inspection of Experiment A was made in July 1952, one year 
from the date of application. This experiment was designed to study eiftht dif- 
ferent methods of killing trees on eight J-acre plots. There was an average 
of 132 trees per acre consisting of 68 percent cottonwood, 12 percent elm, 10 
percent willow, 7 percent sycamore, and 3 percent box elder. The cottonwood 
was also the largest specie in size with an average diameter of 8.1; inches and 
a maximum of 16 inches. 

Table 12 gives the results observed after one year of this experiment. 



-12- 



Table 12 .—Effect of Herbicide on Tree Growth One Year After Application 



Plot 1-A 
check 

girdle only- 
Plot 2-A 
frill & animate 
1 lb* per gal* water 

Plot 3-A 
cup & airanate 
crystals - *6 lb# 

Plot U-A 
frill & spray 
2,Ii,5-T in oil 1:2U 

Plot 5-A 

basal spray 2,U,5-T 

l:2ii in oil 

Plot 6-A 

frill & spray 2,li-D 

1:16 in oil 



Complete top kill 

Bark splitting Partial top kill 

Heavily defoliated Various stages 

Remaining leaves defoliation No noticeable 

Completely brown Leaf browning effect 



perct, 



38 



21 



29 



8U 



97 



69 



perct, 



13 



60 



62 



1U 



perct, 



19 



16 



31 



Plot 7-A 

frill & spray 

brush killer 1:16 in oil 

Plot 8-A 

basal spray 

brush killer 1*16 in oil 



78 



85 



16 



13 



Ammate - ammonium sulfamate 

2,U,5-T - esteron 2,li,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid, propylene glycol butyl 
ether ester 66 percent or k pounds acid per gallon* 

2,ij-B - isopropyl ester of 2,U-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid Ui percent or 3*3 
pounds acid per gallon* 



p 



rush killer - 2,14-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid 2 pounds per gallon and 2,^,5- 
trichlorophenoxyacetic acid propylene glycol butyl ether ester 
2 pounds acid per gallon* 



Plot No* 5 upon which a basal spray of 16 pounds a h g of 2,it,5-li/ 
in diesel oil was applied gave the most spectacular results* This was close- 
ly followed by Plot No* 8 in which the method of application was also basal 
spray using the trade named herbicide "Brush Killer" a mixture of 2,1*,5-T and 
2,U-D?/ at the ratio of ltl6 in diesel oil* 

It is expected as indicated that a high percentage of trees under all 
treatments will be killed* However, the time factor and rate of decay is 
significant* For example a large part of the foliage on Plot No* 5 was com- 
pletely brown within 10 days of application ; within six months, in many cases* 
the bark had split and begun to curl back from the base to the top of the 
tree* A brief inspection at 16 months showed that large limbs were falling 
and some of the smaller trees were down* The 3 percent reported in the column 
"No noticeable effect" for Plot No* 5 actually represents two elms in the 2- 
inch class* This may be the result of faulty application, since other elms in 
this size class were killed as well as one li-inch elm, the largest on this 
particular plot* Elm has given every indication of being the most difficult 
species to kill of those tested* 

Experiment B* which consists of Ik J-acre plots was set up to test 
weaker solutions of the herbicides used in Experiment A with the same methods 
of application* These are reacting much more slowly and the killing effect was 
not taken* A complete report will be made on all plots in the second year after 
application* 



-'Sixteen pounds of acid equivalent per 100 gallons of carrier* 

-/ IWenty-three and one-half pounds of acid equivalent per 100 gallons of 
carrier* 



-Ui- 

DISCUSSICN 

All research in this report has been devoted to graded strip 
mined lands. In order to continue grading, it is necessary to know what 
conditions are being formed and to have some idea of the productivity of 
the land. Physical conditions and chemical reactions have been studied in 
order to determine the ability of this material to support plant growth. 
It has been shown that some crops are more adapted to newly graded area than 
others and that certain crops, particularly legumes and grasses, should be 
the first species seeded on a graded area. There is a strong indication, that 
after a few years growth of legumes and grass, high yielding cash crops can 
be grown, but a specie, such as corn, will not produce on newly graded areas. 

However, one must remember that all spoil banks are not suit- 
able for leveling. Much of the spoil areas will have to be utilized in 
other ways. 

There are four general types of reclamation that have been and will 
continue to be used. Some areas are suitable only for wildlife and re- 
creational areas. Others can be used for forestation. Still others can 
be used for grass and legume pasture. Finally there are areas that are 
suitable for leveling and for crop growth. 

FUTURE PLANS 

Much of the work now in progress will be continued. These will 
include a detailed physical study, fertility requirements, and specie 
adaptation. 

In expanding these general phases of work, the physical study 
will include physical measurements of the soil to determine what changes 



the soil is undergoing under the factors of time and vegetation. Fertility 
studies and specie adaptation, will be continued in order to determine what 
fertility is required, if any, when different crops are grown either alone 
or in a rotation. 



-46- 

cutlisee 

I. Soil investigations 

A. Soil tests 

1. pH 

2. Phosphorus 

3. Potassium 
k. Boron 

B. Mechanical analysis 

1. Graded spoil banks 

2. Strata of the highva.ll 

C. Permeability 

1. Percolation 

2. Volume weight 

3. Pore space 

II. Characteristics of the stratum in the highwall 

A. Chemical analysis 

B. Mechanical analysis 

C. Vegetation 

1. Greenhouse experiment 
III. Forage Crops 

A. Adaptation 

1. Alfalfa variety study 

B. Yield 

C. Ferilizer 
IV. Grain cro~-s 

A. Wheat 

1. ITurse crop 

2. Yield 

B. Soybeans 

1. Fertilizer 



J+7- 
2. Disease 
C. Corn 

1. Fertilizer 

2. Previous vegetation 

3. Yield 

V. Tree killing 

A. Percent of kill 
VI. Discussion 
VII. Future -olans 



-48- 



Bibliography 

1. Tuoyouces, G.J. A Recalibration of the hydrometer method for making 

• Mechanic? 1 analysis of soils. ,7our. Amer. Soc. Agron. ^3:9: 
kyi-l-Jft. September 1951. 

2. The potentialities of revegetating and utilizing agronomic species 

on strip mined areas in Illinois. The Fifth Annual Report. 1953 
p. l£. 

3. Guide for soil conservation surveys. USDA Soil Conservation Service. 

19^8. 

k, Baver, L. D., Soil Physics, pp. 16?-1' P , 19*! 8. 

5. Van Dor en, C. A. and Klingebiel, A. A., Permeability studies on 

some Illinois ^oils. USDA Soil Conservation Service. Washington 
?5, D.C. April 1950. 

6. Baver, L. D., Soil Physics, pp. 178-180. 

7. Illinois State Geological Survey. 

3. The potentialities of revegetating and utilizing agronomic species 
on strip mined areas in Illinois. 1951* 

9. Soybean Diserses in Illinois. University of Illinois College of 

Agriculture Extension Service in Agriculture and Home Economics. 
Circular 676. 

10. Deithschman, Glenn and ITeckers, J. V. , CSFE Station. Submitted 

for -Dublicetion. 



EAT:mlm 
3-7-53